Three years ago I wrote an article which in large part was a commemoration of this year’s 50th anniversary of the March 10th Uprising. Some might feel I jumped the commemoration gun here, but I have, for a long time now, viewed the Khampa Uprising of 1956 as the opening conflict of the Tibetan revolution that culminated in the Lhasa Uprising of 1959. And, of course, though the ripple effects of the revolution have since then largely remained invisible under the surface of Chinese Communist repression, they have at unexpected moments erupted as in last year’s historic uprising. Despite the brutality of official reprisals and the large-scale military clampdown throughout the Tibetan plateau, a number of protests, demonstrations and a self-immolation have already taken place this year.
The one prediction we can make with any confidence about the future of Tibet is that there will be more uprisings. Therefore remembering and honouring these events of our recent past should not be viewed as a symbolic ritual or an academic or literary task. It should rather be an occasion for us to renew our commitment to fight for freedom and justice, and to prepare for that day in the near future when the final uprising, the rangzen revolution, will surely come.
This long article is an expanded version of “Forgotten Anniversary – Remembering the Great Khampa Uprising of 1956 which appeared in Phayul.com on 7 Dec 2006. I have made a number of corrections and additions and discussed the Lhasa Uprising at more length. I have also included a few photographs from the Rangzen Archives and from the AMI Visual Archives.
REMEMBERING THE GREAT UPRISING OF ’56 AND ’59
In 2006 the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution against Soviet occupation was observed with due ceremony and honour throughout Hungary, though in the capital, Budapest, the celebrations were somewhat marred by anti-government protests. Newspapers, magazines and TV networks world-over came out with reports on the anniversary and also retrospectives and commentaries on the events of ‘56 in Hungary.
A far larger and bloodier popular uprising took place that same year in Eastern Tibet, against another totalitarian Communist giant, Red China. But the 50th anniversary of this momentous historical event was entirely ignored by the world, which, distressing as it was, was not very surprising seeing that the Dalai Lama and his exile government also chose to overlook it.
The Hungarian revolt lasted for nineteen days. 2,500 Hungarian freedom fighters were killed and about 13,000 wounded. In Kham the uprising started in February 1956 and lasted until 1962, at least within Tibet, and it was only in August 1974 that Gyatotsang Wangdu, the last resistance leader was ambushed and killed and the guerilla base at Mustang, on the Nepalese frontier, closed down. No one really knows how many people died in this entire conflict. A conservative estimate would have to be no less than half a million people, on the Tibetan side. These facts and figures have not been cited to draw a comparison with what happened in Hungary, since statistics can tell us little about the actual courage and sacrifice of the heroic freedom fighters in both Hungary and Tibet. It was rather to emphasize the bizarre neglect that the Tibetan revolution has congenitally suffered, particularly from those who owe the most to it.
The people of Kham, or Eastern Tibet, rose up against Chinese occupation when Communist authorities began to implement “democratic reforms”, the program to eliminate monastic and tribal leadership and eradicate the traditional social system. The program involved thamzing struggles, public humiliation, beating, torture, forced confessions, imprisonment and often executions. Suicides were widespread in areas where “democratic reforms” were announced.
In exile folklore an archetypal origin of sorts has been ascribed to the events of 1956 in the Lithang Uprising. I may have contributed a little to this development with my play YUNRU, first performed at TIPA in 1981. The paramount resistance chief of Lithang, Yunru Pon was not only a very young and enigmatic personality, but his death in action was the stuff of epic films. He and other Lithangwa chiefs and warriors defended the great monastery of Lithang (founded by the 3rd Dalai Lama) against numerous Chinese infantry assaults, artillery bombardment, and bombing by Chinese aircraft based at Chengdu. When his ammunition ran out Yunru Pon faked a surrender and approaching the Chinese commander shot him dead with a concealed pistol, before being gunned down by Chinese soldiers in a most spectacular manner. One eyewitness, Loto Phuntsok, testified to the International Commission of Jurists in 1959, that 500 Chinese soldiers fired on Yunru Pon.
Violent insurrections had taken place earlier in Eastern Tibet in Gyalthang (south of Lithang) in 1952/54 under the leadership of Wangchuk Tempa, aka Aku Lemar (he was bald) and also in north-eastern Tibet (Amdo) in Hormukha and Nangra, under Pon Choje and Pon Wangchen. According to Rinzin, a surviving eyewitness of the fighting in Amdo, “so many people were killed, so many committed suicide and so many fled to Lhasa that only a few blind men, cripples, fools and some children were left”.
However, the Khampa uprisings of 1956 should be considered the beginning of our great national revolution because these were not isolated events but involved many districts, regions and tribes. The uprisings were, surprisingly, coordinated to quite an extent. According to one source twenty-three major chiefs of Lithang, Chatreng, Batang, Lingkashi, Nyarong, Gyalthang, Gyalrong, Horko, Gaba and other areas, communicated with each other and arranged a common day to launch the uprising. This was the eighteenth day of the Tibetan New Year of 1956.
In Nyarong the attack on the Chinese headquarters at Drugmo Dzong (Dragon Castle) took place four days earlier, on the 14th. The fighting here was led by a young woman, Dorji Yudon, whose sister and husband (the chieftain Nima Gyaritsang) were being held hostage by the Chinese at Dhartsedo. In a conversation with this amazing woman (very soft-spoken and less than five feet tall) she told me that she received a letter from Yunru Pon, calling on Nyarong to revolt. She was forced to advance the date of her attack as she was tipped off that the Chinese were coming to arrest her. Other Khampa women also fought against the Chinese and in some cases, like Dorji Yudon, even led resistance groups. When one of the chieftains of Gonjo, Lemda Pon, died, his daughter, Pachen, took up the fight and fought stubbornly for a number of years till her people and her family were wiped out and she herself captured and imprisoned for twenty years.
The districts of Gonjo, Drayak, Chagra Pembar, Shopado, Western Derge, Pomo, Dzachukha, Trehor and Markham joined in the fighting some months after the initial uprising. With the whole of Eastern Tibet now ablaze with insurrection, the Red Army embarked on a genocidal course of reprisals. One of my informants, Nyarong Aten (whose biography I authored) had at first collaborated with the Chinese and he told me that a Chinese officer Colonel Len explained to him why Tibetan children had to be killed “…we are to exterminate them all, even the women and children … if you crush the nits, there will be no more lice.” Now a large flow of refugees began to make its way to Lhasa. The Dalai Lama and his government retained nominal authority in Central Tibet, but insignificant as it was, even that was eroding every day as the Chinese occupation force in Lhasa grew ever stronger, with reinforcements arriving daily on the new motor road.
Khampa residents in Lhasa became increasingly troubled with the catastrophic news from their homeland. One prominent merchant of Lithang, Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang, secretly began creating a resistance movement inside the city. Using the cover of organizing a public religious event, a Long Life Prayer Ceremony for the Dalai Lama he raised funds, contacted important lamas, various leaders, and also officials of the Tibetan government, including the Dalai Lama’s Lord Chamberlain, Phala. This ceremony had an underlying political significance that expressed the people’s loyalty to the Dalai Lama, and Gompo Tashi used it brilliantly to reassert the fundamental unity of Kham, Amdo and Central Tibet under the sovereign rule of the Dalai Lama. He symbolized this in the offering of a golden throne to the Dalai Lama from the three provinces of Tibet.
Then in 1958 he formed a resistance army, the Four Rivers Six Ranges (a geographical description of Eastern Tibet) at Driguthang, south of Lhasa. Agents of the resistance movement were sent to India were able to contact the CIA. Eventually with the participation of the Dalai Lama’s older brother, Thupten Jigme Norbu, and later under the direction of His Holiness’s other brother, Gyalo Thondup, (assisted by Lhamo Tsering) a program was created where Tibetan volunteers were flown to a secret training camp at Colorado and trained in communications, weaponry, guerrilla warfare, and parachuting.
The first American arms drops that arrived in the July of 1958, about four hundred rifles, could not match the demand from the large number of volunteers that had gathered at Driguthang. But Gompo Tashi still managed to launch a number of long-range strikes against Chinese positions in northern Tibet, western Tibet and even back inside Kham in the Sho-Ta-Lho-Sum area. News of these attacks and Chinese defeats appeared in Lhasa city on wall posters, and thrilled the populace. Khampa refugees in Lhasa began to make their way to Driguthang, as well as volunteers from Lhasa (many ex-soldiers) Gyangtse, Shelkar and other districts in Central and Western Tibet. The resistance now took on a broader pan-Tibetan character and was renamed “the Volunteer Army to Defend the Faith” (Tensung Dhanglang Makar) to reflect this transformation.
Whatever the immediate reasons for the Lhasa Uprising of March 1959 — the invitation to the Dalai Lama to attend a cultural show at the Chinese headquarters and so on — the fundamental cause for this defining event was certainly the Khampa uprising and continued resistance. This, in a real sense, provided the inspiration and the opportunity for the Lhasa populace, the remaining units of the old Tibetan army and loyal government officials to strike a final blow for their leader and country – before the Chinese took control completely.
Even a cursory account of March 1959 would require at least a book, but perhaps I can briefly cover some less well know events in that Uprising, and also record the names of some of the brave but unknown people, peasants, monks, nuns, soldiers, artisans, and aristocrats who took part. We now know that it was a junior official, Barshi Ngawang Tenkyong (with the support of some officials as Phala) who first spread the news of the Dalai Lama’s proposed visit to the Chinese military headquarters for the cultural show, and who “was instrumental in organizing public opposition to this”. Then we have the creation of the People’s Assembly and the women’s demonstrations on 12th March led by “Pamo” (heroine) Kunsang and Galingshar Choela, a nun from Mechungri Nunnery, both later executed in prison
The Uprising was coordinated by the People’s Assembly, a gathering of government officials, military men, monks and heads of the various trade guilds and mutual-aid groups (kyidug). They met at the government printing press (Shol Parkhang) at the Shol hamlet below the Potala. Weapons were obtained from the government armoury in the Shol Military HQ and distributed to all the fighters including monks from Sera, Drepung and Ganden who came to the hamlet secretly in the night. With about three hundred people in the Assembly there was a lot of talking and back and forth, but soon a clear leadership began to emerge in the persons of the monk official Khenchung Lobsang Tsewang (Minkyiling) and Tsarong Dasang Dadul, the first commander in chief of Tibet’s modern army, but now an old man.
Tsarong had returned from India a few months earlier with the intention of rescuing the young Dalai Lama (as he told my uncle in Darjeeling). He had, decades, earlier helped the Thirteenth Dalai Lama escape from the clutches of Manchu soldiers. One eyewitness told me that on the first night of the fighting (March 20th) he saw Tsarong in a large chamber in Shol, with a map (probably Aufschnaiter’s map of Lhasa) spread out before him. He was smoking heavily (the room was full of cigarette smoke) and issuing instruction to various people. He told my informant to go and help dig trenches. He had a Colt automatic pistol tucked in the belt of his chuba. He survived the fighting and was captured by the Chinese. He died in prison. At least three people I interviewed, who were with him in prison, told me that he just laughed and joked till his last day.
The few surviving units of the old Tibetan army, supported by volunteers from the Lhasa public, were distributed around the important areas of the city. The Guards regiment (Kusung Magar) defended the Norbulingka along with a unit from the Gyangtse regiment, another unit of which was posted at Shol. The Lhasa police force was took charge of the Jokhang area, Lubu and Ramoche. I will not go into details of the fighting in the center of the city. Most Tibetans have heard of the legendary police major, Rinzin Paljor, also know as Rupon Gura (hunchback) because he was tortured by the Chinese in 1933 and his back permanently damaged). This extraordinary man had some policemen and volunteers haul a large howitzer and a number of mortars through the streets and alleys of Central Lhasa, all of which he would, from time to time, personally set up, aim and fire at Chinese positions.
The Potala Palace and Chakpori were defended by soldiers of the Drapchi regiment. Chinese infantry charged up the Chakpori (Iron Hill) held by about seventy-seven soldiers. Twice the Tibetan soldiers beat back the charges. Then the Chinese trained their artillery barrage on the hill. One of the last defenders was Sergeant Tashi Tsewang, who kept on firing his bren machine-gun although covered with blood and dying. His son, a soldier, Kalsang Wangdu, said “Pala, give me the bren gun, Pala. As his father’s head fell back, the young soldier took the bren from his father’s hand and commenced firing at the attacking Chinese soldiers. Then the entire building collapsed when it received a direct hit from an artillery shell. My informant was the only survivor who escaped from the hill. When the Chinese made their final charge there was no one left alive on the hill. In Communist propaganda films you see their soldiers charging up what they refer to as “Yowang” (?) hill, and Tibetan soldiers surrendering immediately afterward. But this latter footage is actually of the soldiers of the Guards regiment (check the uniform) surrendering at the Norbulingka barracks. I was told that the whole thing was reenactment for the documentary. The photograph of Tsarong and other prisoners marching with their hands up was also a reenactment.
Following the events in Lhasa, the nomads of western Changtang, under the leadership of Nagtsang Pubo of Shentsa Dzong, rose up against the Chinese. A support team was parachuted near Lake Namtso, to back up the revolt, but it failed to make contact with the fighters. The following year the nomads of Sog, Bachen and other districts in north-eastern Changtang, under the leadership of Pon Norbu Tsering put together a formidable resistance force of at least five to seven thousand fighting men. The Chinese at once sent in a couple of divisions of infantry, supported by cavalry units, armoured cars, tanks and even jet fighters based at Damshung north of Lhasa. A team of eight Tibetan specialists was parachuted in to support the uprising, which they successfully did, following which nine separate arms drops were made.
On learning that the Chinese were using tanks against the resistance fighters another eight-man team of Tibetans, trained in using bazookas and 75mm recoilless rifles, were also parachuted in. The Chinese air-dropped leaflets calling on the Tibetans to surrender, but the Tibetans got the Americans to drop thousands of facsimile copies of a letter from the Dalai Lama urging Tibetans to resist. Many Tibetans kept the letter as an amulet. After six months of savage fighting the resistance force here was completely wiped out. The last radio communication that the CIA received was from “Nathan”, the codename of Andrugtsang Ngawang Phulchung, the team leader. Under withering fire he sent out the message that tank–led columns were closing on their position. Not a single member of the two teams got out.
In March 1961 a seven-man team led by Phupatsang Yeshi Wangyal (“Tim”) was parachuted into Markham. The resistance force here though once around twenty thousand strong, had weakened considerably by this time. Though the inserted team managed to make contact with what remained of the resistance force (about sixty odd fighters) the Chinese wiped them all out within the year. The Chinese were reported to have had 70,000 troops in Markham district alone. The only surviving member of the team, a doctor in the Lhasa police force, Nyemo Bhusang (my informant and friend) had earlier fought in the ’59 Uprising with Rupon Gura at the Jhokang. He was captured in Markham and imprisoned for eighteen years.
We must bear in mind that at any one time during the Soviet war in Afghanistan the Russians only had about 80,000 to 100,000 troops throughout the country. In Tibet (including Kham and Amdo) it appears that the Chinese had about half a million soldiers based there. From most accounts it also appears that the Chinese used “human wave” (ch. ren-hai zhan-shu) tactics against the numerically inferior Tibetans. In a number of interviews survivors spoke of entire mountainsides being covered with yellow (tib. ri ser-chigi). The Chinese uniforms being khaki or “yellow”. Of course such tactics would translate into high casualty figures for the Chinese as well, which might account for the prevalence of many “Martyr’s Memorial” cemeteries (ch. lishi-mu) In a number of district headquarters in Kham, where reportedly tens of thousands of Chinese military personnel were buried, in many cases three or four bodies in one coffin.
From anecdotal evidence alone the scale of the fighting and the subsequent deaths and dislocation in Eastern Tibet appear to have been enormous. A leading American China scholar, Roderick MacFarquhar, considered that the Tibetan Resistance produced “the gravest episode of internal disorder (in the People’s Republic of China) prior to the Cultural Revolution . . .” Chinese figures taken from their 1982 census, twenty years after the revolt had been crushed, reveal far fewer men than women throughout Kham and parts of Amdo. Such disparate sex-ratio figures do not appear in other areas of Tibet or China, although vast numbers of people died in these places too, especially during the post “Great Leap” famine, but which, one can reasonably conclude, affected both sexes equally.
The only published figures we have for Tibetans killed in the Lhasa Uprising and its aftermath is from official Chinese sources. A booklet marked “secret” and published in Lhasa on October 1, 1960 by the political department of the Tibetan Military District, states : “From last March (1959) up to now (1960) we have already wiped out (ch. xiaomie) over 87,000 of the enemy.”
At a conference in Harvard in 2002, on “Tibet and the Cold War”, some American sinologists there insisted on explaining that the term “xiaomie”, though literally “wipe out” could be interpreted to mean “imprisoned” or “removed” and so on. This was academic claptrap of the most specious kind. Many words in most languages have alternative or synonymous meanings. For instance the word “kill” does not necessarily have to mean the taking of life. It could be used in the context of ending a deal, or even causing laughter to an extreme degree. But if a police report stated that so and so was killed would we seriously consider these semantic substitutes? So why should we do so in the case of a Chinese “military”, repeat “military” document where, almost certainly, precise and unambiguous language would be called for.
At a famous libel trial in London in 1994, the notorious holocaust denier, David Irving, made a similar comment about the German term “ausrotung” (extirpation) used by Hitler, which Irving argued did not mean mass-murder but rather “uproot” or “enforced immigration”. He also took issue with the word “vernichtung”, which historians generally consider a euphemism for annihilation. Irving argued that the term was used by the Nazi’s only in a rhetorical sense.
The Tibetans issue has spawned its own share of “holocaust deniers”, a leading one being the anthropologist Melvin Goldstein who has stated that there was no genocide of Tibetans by the Chinese. He has also advocated that Tibetans give up their national rights and live in “cultural reservations” in the PRC. In his 1996 report on the Golok nomads of north-eastern Tibet, Goldstein makes passing mention that they resisted the Chinese occupation militarily, that the fighting was severe and that there were many casualties. But then he continues — without a hint of irony, or use of qualifications or parenthesis — that “… the area was pacified and liberated only in 1952.” Goldstein further informs us that there was a second substantial outbreak of fighting in the 1957-58 period. In a footnote he adds: “It is interesting to note that the figure of Goulou (Golok) population growth in the Socio-Economic Baseline Survey reveals a sharp decline in population between 1957-58.”
But that genocide, ethnic cleansing, holocaust or whatever you want to call it, had taken place in the Golok region is undeniable. A Chinese academic who traveled through Golok and made a thorough study of the situation there, concluded that the Golok population had been reduced from about 1,30,000 in 1956 to about 60,000 in 1963. (China Spring, June 1986). More than half the population had been wiped out.
The late Panchen Lama, Chokyi Gyaltsen, courageously spoke up about the genocide of the Golok people in an official speech in Beijing. “In Amdo and Kham, people were subjected to unspeakable atrocities … In Golok area, many people were killed and their dead bodies rolled down the hill into a big ditch. The soldiers told the family members and relatives of the dead people that they should celebrate since the rebels have been wiped out. They were forced to dance on the dead bodies. Soon after, they were also massacred with machine guns.”
I will stop here. I know there is so much more to tell, but this piece was written to remind Tibetans of the forgotten anniversaries of our national revolution, not as a history of the resistance. All Tibetans need to be reminded of these tragic yet great events, especially those of us who made it into exile and freedom. In the aftermath of the Lhasa Uprising nearly everyone who managed to escape from Central Tibet did so largely because the major Chinese garrison at Tsetang, south of Lhasa, was under siege by the resistance, which allowed a safe corridor for refugees to flee to India.
Refugees from Tö, Ngari and Kyirong in Western Tibet had a relatively easier time escaping because Chinese troops were tied down by the fighting in Central Tibet and Kham. Later when the Mustang base became operational, Chinese military movement in Western Tibet became greatly curtailed, especially during 1963 and 1964 when the Xinjiang /Shigatse highway became all but unusable because of guerrilla attacks. This allowed more refugees from Western Tibet to escape through the Mustang corridor.
All the Tibetans from Kongpo and Pemako area who escaped to India in 1962, managed to do so because of the leadership and guidance of the ten-man guerilla team that had earlier been inserted into that area, and that organized the mass evacuation of the local people to Arunachal Pradesh. These refugees were subsequently resettled in camps at Miao, Tezu, and Chaglang. From the mid sixties onwards after the resistance was completely crushed and the Tibetan border sealed, the flow of refugees to India and Nepal virtually dried up to nothing.
It is safe to say there would have been no exile-government at Dharamshala if it weren’t for the Uprisings of 1956 and 1959. Which is why we must ask why Dharamshala did not observe the anniversary of the ’56 Khampa Uprising and appears to be be doing nothing more for the ’59 Uprising, other than arranging a Long Life Prayer Ceremony for His Holiness? Is it because the actions of our leaders and the present policies of the government in exile are in stark contradiction to the idealism of those who fought and died for Tibetan freedom? Is this is why Dharamshala appears to be more comfortable celebrating betrayal and treachery rather than courage and sacrifice?
In 2006 an official Tibetan translation of a biography of the arch collaborator, Phuntsok Wangyal, was published at Dharamshala (the English original by Melvyn Goldstein appeared in 2004). The book was released with much fanfare in the Tibetan exile community with Prime Minister Samdong Rimpoche presiding over the function and praising Phuntsok Wangyal as a great Tibetan and a philosopher. In a subsequent discussion on the book on Radio Free Asia, I pointed out that Wangyal had been deeply involved in the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950, acting as the chief guide to the invading Chinese Army, the main organizer and supplier of food grain and pack animals (on which he and his partner Chagotsang Topden reportedly made a lot of money) and attempting, in various clandestine ways, to get Tibetan officials and military personnel in Chamdo and Markham to betray their country. Not a single officer did.
All the subsequent stories of betrayal and treachery by government officials are just that — stories. Even Ngabo went over to the Chinese side only after he was captured and Phuntsok Wangyal spent many hours indoctrinating him. Over a thousand Tibetans, regular soldiers and Khampa militia died defending their country in 1950. During the discussion on Radio Free Asia the Tibetan translator of the biography insisted that Phuntsok Wangyal could not be considered a traitor since the Chinese would have won the war anyway even without his assistance.
I say this with all due respect, but Samdong Rimpoche should reflect on what might have been his own fate had resistance fighters not protected his escape route in 1959. I have interviewed a few incarnate lamas left behind in Tibet after the uprising and their accounts were invariably harrowing. Under similar circumstances it seems very possible that Samdong Rimpoche would have ended up in some bleak laogai farm, in a line of gaunt, starving prisoners, chanting “yi-ér yi-ér” (one-two one-two), as they shuffled in time, bent over with the weight of wicker baskets overflowing with fetid night-soil.
But far more important for all Tibetans is, of course, the question of what might have happened to the Dalai Lama under these circumstances? What if there had been no uprising, or no armed escort of resistance fighters to cover his escape from Lhasa? What if he had been forced to remain in Tibet? I have asked and answered these questions in another essay some years ago, but I think they could be re-examined to some profit.
Had the Dalai Lama remained behind it is fairly possible that, especially with the advent of the Cultural Revolution, he would have undergone imprisonment, public humiliation and torture, much like the Panchen Lama. Even if that had not happened he certainly would have become a Chinese puppet. In the opinion of His Holiness’s youngest brother, Tendzin Choegyal, had the Dalai Lama remained in Tibet “…they (the Chinese) would have would have used His Holiness just as the Japanese used poor Pu Yi (the last Manchu Emperor). That’s what he would have become, another Pu Yi.” (Kundun, Mary Craig, Harper Collins, 1997). So, in a real sense the Dalai Lama owes his freedom, his present international stature and even his Nobel Prize, to courageous fighting men who rescued him not only from physical danger but also from a situation that was politically and morally compromising.
At the very least anyone who considers himself or herself a Tibetan should spare a moment to remember all those incredibly brave men and women without whose courage, sacrifice and most of all, resolve, there would probably now be no Dalai Lama, no exile-government, no exile-community, no Tibetan cause and perhaps even no Tibetan culture and religion, other than the museum or dharma center variety.
It is especially important to remember these people now, as many heroic Tibetan men and women are following in their footsteps and more seem determined to do so for the foreseeable future. The hard truth is that the uprisings will never stop. All of us, especially His Holiness and the exile-government, must accept this. Whether peaceful, as they appear to be at present, or violent, which is the grim possibility in the future – the uprisings will absolutely go on. The only way the uprisings will ever stop is when the Chinese succeed in wiping us out as a people, or when Tibet becomes independent.
Jamyang Norbu, Warriors of Tibet: The Story of Aten and the Khampas’ Fight for the Freedom of their Country, Wisdom, Boston 1986. First published in 1979.
Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
The Population Atlas of China, Oxford University Press, 1987)
Xizang xingshi wenwu jiaoyu di jiben jiaocai, Lhasa: Political Department of the Tibetan Military District, 1960.)
Melvyn C. Goldstein, “The Dragon and the Snowlion: The Tibetan Question in the 20th Century”, CHINA BRIEFING, 1990, New York, the Asia Society, 1990. Reprinted in TIBETAN REVIEW, March 1991.)
Speech by the 10th Panchen Lama at a meeting of the Sub-Committee of the National People’s Congress in Peking on situation in Tibet, 28 March 1987.
Nomads of Golok: A Report Melvyn C. Goldstein, Case Western Reserve University, Dec.14,1996. www.case.edu/affil/tibet/tibetanNomads/golok.htm
63 Replies to “March Winds”
I agree with JN, Chinese word “xiao mie” means extermination or destruction without a trace or simply wipe out.
extermination or wipe out. This particular word is repeatedly used in Chinese propagandist film and shown as extermination destruction. Like phuntsok wangyal, we have our traitors in exile. The most prominent is the colaborator of Goldstein’ x-wife surkhan and their families. We produce a literature to expose these dangerous traitors for colaborating in the distortion of our modern history, misrepresenting social system, denying chinese holocaust in the land of the snow, and finally the continued enslavement of their country. At least, we should start out by discussing it in public forum. To JN la, I learnt through interactions with people from lhasa, Goldstein only used many Tibetans to work for him whom he never credited either in writing or in person. He gave them the fake title called “ramchampa” means or master’ degree. Goldstein meticulously used Chinese propaganda in unscholarly works. This must be exposed! Get Goldstein in international criminal court for inter
Had the Dalai Lama remained behind in Tibet, we would have got our independence or he might have suffered the fate of the late Panchen Lama. The latter looks more likely.
Kashag, most of the time, curry favours with the person of His Holiness the Dalai lama! This is sad, but true.
Thanks for the pictures, Jamyang la
The present exile govt and the international image of his holiness was greatly an outcome of sacrifices made by our own committed tibetan people every now and then. Not because of Bush’s medal honour or Sarkozy’s meeting! Reminder for our exile politicians!!! Due to lack of political awareness or may be we are being too spiritual in all approach, we still place our sincere hope in the dirty hands of HU and those western gamlers. Now, its high time to get rid of this false illusion for such a noble cause and move forward with reality of international scene. By remembering those martyrs this time, and we will fight and fight for the truth with all possible approaches demanded by the reality of time. Good job JN!
Why aren’t these brave men and women being honored in our exile community? Why don’t they teach about these great history of a proud and nobel race in our school instead of stupid zema key lakthi ne bs? We are our own worst enemy and that is the saddest thing about this whole tibetan story. That is why religion and politics should never mix and I guess we would be a living example of the inefficiency and the disastrous consequence of such a union. Maybe, some other nation could learn from our fatal mistake.
nga lobsang and tenpa las.
well said guys, keep up the spirit, energy, anger, passion, whatever they call it…the dead people buried under the “great” wall of China is on the verge of tumbling it down…
Spellbinding reading.What incredibly brave heroes have blazed a path for Tibet;selfless bold few against the endlessly brutal many.Thank you for again shining a light upon them, and particularly at this time,and for reminding us what really went down at the time. How much was achieved, safeguarded, fought for – enabling much of what followed. Acts standing forever as a shining example, unparalled anywhere.Thanks for putting things in proportion vis a vis the Russian Afghan occupation and plenty more valuable details found here. Such poignant photos of these valiant Tibetan warriors.One would hope this article is available in Tibetan because it would surely inspire certain of the youth living in India and elsewhere where its infinitely easier to circulate these words of truth and fire. As the Chinese stranglehold tightens,these fighters from the past incarnate such a powerful statement of what the Tibetan people are capable of once they set their wills on resistance – mythological strength, sacrifice.
Thank you Jamyang for documenting these important events and bringing this into focus as March Winds blow once more.
I am glad when I read the heading of ‘March 10 gift’ essay written at the right time as I am usually great fan of yours patriotic writings. But as I go through it line by line, I came to know that it is not about March 10 Lhasa uprising, but rather trying to glorify some of Khampa uprising. I got really sad when such famous writer try to pick up only part of Tibetans and bullying other side when talking about Tibet issue. I dont think he didnot know about its bad effect on Unity of Tibetan. But he wrote it knowingly that it arouse bad effects like disunity cause etc. From now on, I should be careful in reading his article, trying not to become blind-adherents towards one-sided like Jamyang Norbu.
I also believe that Resistance armies group had done great job in fighting with Chinese armies and they lay down their precious lives for Tibet country sake. But every examplery job has opposite side of bad imagenary error.
That is why, I ask for many times if you could analyse and investigate the wrongdoing by Chushi Gangduk Armies during 1958-63 period in Tibet especially on poor Tibetan civilian living in around Lhokha, and Kyirong areas. Its common that these militias had looted stocks and animals rampartedly and even raped those young gals in that area. Everybody accepted this facts but I didnot find any words related with these matters in any books of Revolutionary armies and the biography. But I heard lots of misdoings from old Tibetan who have participated in fighting with Chinese armies. Perhaps you didnot hear any news about it. Or you donot want to put down on the paper due to the fear of your long essay and previous books of revolutionary becomes Flop.
Sera jampa, what is your final verdict of your unleashed heresy produced by PRC ministry of truth? You and PRC wanted such a story, but you never find, the result is a blatant lie without integrity!
What are you asking? I know it wasn’t addressed to me, but it doesn’t seem clear to me at all.
Great article. Perhaps it is because I am interested in that period. I agree with the assessment that the Dalai Lama and exile community, and perhaps even the nation of Tibet would no longer exist, if it wasn’t for these men and women who stood up for freedom.
“Peaceful liberation”? Yeah, like Pax Romana, peace after violently crushing all resistance, maybe. But the Roman Empire came tumbling down and all we have are ruins, while the idea of people living freely is still much alive. I hope Tibet doesn’t much more longer to go for its own freedom.
Maybe in celebrating these men and women who fought for freedom, the flames of inspiration their example can inspire will only multiply.
NewgenerationTB, Your remarks and question towards me is not related to my writing at all. No sentient beings would accept that Tibet was liberated by Chinese armies 50 yrs as said by their propaganda mouth piece newsservice or leaders.
Jamyang La,If you have any response related to my previous writing, I would be very glad. But be honest and intelligent.
Excellent article, very strong words. Without a doubt we as Tibetans must honor these unsung heroes especially those who represent our community.
Hey Sera Jampa,
regarding your comment (7.) I don’t believe Jamyang Norbu la is a Khampa, so he has no vested interest in glorifying their deeds, it is simply facts, and their actions were inspirational. Khampas are Tibetans, and as a Tibetan we should be proud of what our people sacrificed.
Now I also know there were brave Tibetans in other parts of Tibet, I’ve heard stories of an amazing Nyemo Ani, who with few of her volunteers battled Chinese soldiers for a many weeks if not months, but these stories have not been put down on paper and have become sort of like a legend, and the fault is mainly with the people from these areas. If you’re from Nyemo, Kyirog or where ever, research properly your heroes and write about them, with facts and sources, so Tibetans from all provinces can be proud of them.
Re. comment: (8.) As in all cases of desperate times, there are evil people who take advantage and resort to looting, raping, bullying their own people. It is the same for Tibetans. This was a terrible thing, but I don’t blame the Chushi Gangdruk, nor the Tibetan Army, I blame the individuals who did these acts. These organizations had strict codes of conduct, and the majority of their soldiers behaved properly towards civilians. But common sense tells one that probably there were a few bad apples. I believe some of the people known for doing such evil deeds were punished. But also, as you may know, there were also many petty criminals pretending to be Chushi Gangdruk or soldiers and going around taking advantage of farmers and villages. These Tibetans were truely despicable.
Well with being said, I think Tibetans until we get Rangzen, need to be inspired not bummed out, so let’s focus on our true enemy China, and look to our past for inspiration.
Thank you Phuntsok Jorden for your comments. I am moved by your fine writing.
I dont know where Jamyang La is from? Which region? That is not my business at all. May be half Khampa or whatever. It is not only me that suggest same as mine. There are lots, numberless. Even American and British armies waging war in Iraq or Afghanistan could make wrongdoing like rape, torture, etc. although they are under very strict rule. So, If u look carefully at my points, you will find some meaning.
I am not denying that fact that Khampas had done great job for our nation regain. But it doesnot mean that others hadnot done anything, sitting idle with looking from faraway. They have also sacrificed their lives, families, house etc. Numberless of Tibetan die in Lhasa uprising, and also Amdo Uprising. But when Jamyang write article, he touch only on one side, but bullying others. This will discourage other Tibetans strong nationalist soul, which will disintegrate our national strong bondage. If that happens, then Chinese will sit lavishly and happily in Tibet forever. Leave behind Rangzen, not even pinch of autonomy will be get.
So, those famous writer should be careful and think hundred times before writing one page.
You are right that writers should think over things before writing, and thing them over again as they write.
I disagree that Jamyang is bullying others with his article. We mustn’t confuse strong toned writing with bullying. I didn’t see where Jamyang bullied or belittled other contributions to the Tibetan resistance. His article is simply celebrating what he has chosen to write about. If anyone else has some other things they want to bring to light, they should write about those.
I disagree that Jamyang’s writings will discourage other Tibetans strong nationalist soul. It will discourage those people with a Sinocentric outlook on affairs, however.
Without the Tibetan militant resistance, the Dalai Lama and much of the exile community would have never made it out of Tibet, and history would have been a lot cleaner for China. We can live non-violently, and that is the true non-violence, but when threatened, we can fight back against tyranny. It is our right and I believe it is our moral imperative as human beings who wish to live in dignity. The early Americans had a saying “Don’t Tread On Me.” This wasn’t the saying of violent people, but of people who wanted to be left to live in freedom, nonviolently if they could, but if stepped on, they had no qualms about rising up.
A few instances of misbehaving and dishonorable Chusi Gangdruk soldiers could not even put a dent in the tremendous and honorable duty the army itself did in opposing the red Chinese barbarians. It’s a case of comparing individual sins with national glory — there is nothing to compare. Of course, any soldier anywhere who behaves in such a way should be executed. Unfortunately, it remains beyond my capacity to execute 90% of the Chinese army.
Moreover, if one were to compare the number of rapes perpetrated by Tibetans against Tibetans, versus the number of rapes inflicted TO THIS DAY by the Chinese occupying troops, it would be like comparing a puddle to an ocean of Chinese atrocity.
I firmly believe that any rapist, Tibetan or Chinese, who can not be sufficiently sequestered from society through imprisonment deserves to be executed. I would uphold this for any Tibetan rapist, and most certainly, for all of your Chinese police and soldiers.
You miss the point when you focus on a few unfortunate incidents from the past. It is indeed similar to the behavior of American or British soldiers in Iraq. A few despicable “soldiers” commit evil deeds, and are punished where possible.
However, the Chinese occupation exists as an entire national apparatus COMMITTED to evil; using rape and torture as political weapons. It is our moral duty to oppose and overthrow such evil men, as Malcolm X said, “by any means necessary.”
We can not do anything about some wannabe Chusi Gangdruk soldier who may have abused a farm girl in the 1950’s. But we CAN do quite a few things about this rapist, torturing, murderous, genocidal Chinese regime.
Whether by Khampa, Golokwa, Amdowa or any other Tibetan, acts of bravery are always great inspiration to all.
Who can be petty enough to resent the small praise offered to the supreme sacrifices made by these martyrs? They are long dead, and dead fighting for Tibet.
Let us not blacken their deed and memory by airing some trumped up mis-deeds.
Even if there were such robberies or looting supposedly perperuated by these warriors, it is likely that those were individual instances committed by a few.
And looking at the dirty tricks and tactics employed by CCP for the last 6 decades, how can we be sure that those were not orchestrated by the Chinese to undermine and discredit the one force (Chushi Gangdruk) that posed a real, physical opposition to their subjugation of Tibet?
As a descendant of a Chushi Gangdruk warrior, I and my siblings take tremendous pride in our father’s bravery in risking his life for Tibet. But never have we used that to bully other Tibetans or degrade them.
On the other hand, it enforces in us the determination to work for the cause of Tibet, how ever little the contribution.
And another very important point…., since we have heard first hand how much courage and determination it takes to risk everything, we acquire a deep sense of appreciation for everyone who continue resisting Chinese domination.
Looking at the degree of your resentment, it is obvious that you are not from Kham.
If I were to think the way you do, then I must resent anyone and everyone who praises Gyeshe Paldan Gyatso, becasue he is not from Kham.
But, I respect Gyeshe Paldan Gyatso as much as I respect the Chushi Gangdruk martyers because I can identify in him the courage, determination and the hardships my father and Chushi Gangdruk warriors voluntarily undertook for the sake of Tibet.
Thus, may be you have an attitude problem.
One way to resolve that is to find people from your own locality who have sacrificed themselves for Tibet. Write about it, talk about it to others and take pride in that person/s courage. That way, you will feel that you too (through your brave warrior/s, martyr/s)have contributed something for Tibet. It might even make you a brave person:)
Another brilliant article.
Refering to Phuntsok Jordhen’s comment, about rotten apples within the Chushi Gangdruk, i’d like to add that the biggest one being “Jamyang Norbu”. By all means we cannot disregard the fact that there were many sincire people; young old, lay and the ordained involved in this resistance whom lost their lives defending their country. But what we need this very moment is Unity!! Unity within the community.
Jamyang Norbu you are not helping in achieving this in anyway. Another thing i want to point out is your way of addressing the Khampas, your method of bias proclamation that they were the brave ones and the rest cowards, even though you dont say it as directly it is well understood. Also the fact that you are not a Khampa brings alota question to mind. Firstly what a big JABJUNG!! and secondly, I’ve always heard that there were trators within the community and You could be the biggest of the biggest trators? trying to split the exile community from within… gaining popularity among the young with ur extreme views couldnt have been hard… So how much are the chinese paying you?
All in all If this were to ever be true it wouldnt suprise me at all.
And as a curiosity …since you were in the Chushi Gangdruk, Considering your resentment towards the achievement and well being of His Holiness, the govt in exile and the tibetans, it is very likely that you were a part of the raping and looting of innocent tibetans fleeing tibet.
Yeaaahh phunsto, we are all traitors paid by the commi overlords to perpetuate Rangzen instead of middle path. Happy now? By the way, Area 51: The Martian Conspiracy discussion board is on tuesday at 5:30 pm at Aunt Hilda’s basement. Please show up as a honored guest. Remember the slogan, “what is life without a little conspiracy?”. Also, lunch buffet is free.
I am not from Kham nor do I have any family members who are from Kham and I am still proud of my fellow Tibetans for what they have done for Tibet. Jamyang la wrote about those freedoms fighters that he knows about and also because they were involved in the initial conflict and most probably in huge operations that lasted many years in some instances. He never said they weren’t any Tibetans from other parts of Tibet who didn’t fight for Tibet. I believe he mentioned about the joined operations with the central Tibetan forces. You think all those who fought and died in Lhasa on march 10 and subsequent fightings are from Kham? Didn’t he mention about the sacrifice of Amdowas too? You just refuse to see what was obvious. To me, it doesn’t matter where you are from as long as you are not delusional and your heart is in the right place. I will always judge a person by the strength of their character and not by where they were born. That idea is so outdated that it should belong next to somebody who thinks Jamyang la is being paid by the commibastards to create disunity in our exile government.
p.s: Phunsto…be there! Otherwise, I will drop you from our newsletter.
Dear Jamyang Norbhu lak,
I must admit that all your articles are well researched and well written.It is an inspiration for youths like me and many.I firmly beleive that the only way to fight against our foe is through intellect and reason.Just uttering “FREE TIBET” is not enough.Your articles like ” The gift for Rangzen Activist” and “March winds” throws immese light as why Tibet was free before Chinese occupation and the selfless martyrs whose names we have forgotten to write down on the anals of gold.It is my genuine suggestion to all the Tibetan youths around the globe that we know these facts.By knowing these facts,we become more confdent to fight against the commusnist China who is a master of false fibrication.So, I say,”
Centuries lose in their shadows,
Yet truth defies to disappear,
And the truth is Tibet,
Though concealed under lies,
Yet glitters in the air”.
There seems to be some kind of prevalent hysteria that Rangzen activists are splitting the exile community or undermining His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This short sighted view easily loses sight of the fact that the real THREAT to the Dalai Lama and his nation are the Chinese who would kill him, torture his monks, rape his nuns, destroy his temples, and fabricate his religion (with fake Panchens and a thousand other devious tactics).
The Rangzen supporters simply uphold a basic idea that ought to be obvious to those of us without the proverbial Chinese woolens pulled over our eyes:
That not only will China never negotiate in earnest, but that Tibet deserves its independence, and does not deserve to be ruled by a foreign, imperialist, Communist regime.
Now, the Chinese are very clever in backtracking into everything from purported assasinations in the exile community, to anything that could possibly split the exiles….from the Karmapa issues to regionalism, and so on.
Let me simply ask anyone caught up in that sort of ridiculous nonsense:
who are the real rapists?
who are torturing Tibetans?
who are the murderers?
These three questions should make clear not only the essential unity among Tibetans, but the pointlessness of any divisive thinking.
I’ll be humorous and comment on a few “controversies” in a political light.
1) Neither Orgyen Trinley Dorje nor Thaye Dorje is known for raping nuns with cattle prods. The Chinese are.
2) Neither Rangzen activists like Jamyang Norbu or middle way men like Samdhong Rinpoche like to hang monks in the airplane position and beat them while their shoulders dislocate. Chinese do.
3) Although the prime minister may wear a skirt, he’s not party to the influx of Chinese prostitutes in Lhasa, nor is he responsible for the spreading of HIV in Tibet. The Chinese are.
4) Lhasa people stick out their tongues and bend low. Khampas speak and stand straight. Neither merits much concern since the Chinese tore out Tibetan tongues with iron hooks, and tortured Khampas until they COULDN’T stand up straight anymore. Everyone is pretty equal in the degree of suffering inflicted across all of the Land of Snows.
Remember the pertinent fact: the devil is red China! Let no one lose sight of the fact, and may no one relent in the struggle.
Prescott and Patel
Like i mentioned,Tenpa we cannot deny the fact that there were lives lost, and by all mean they deserve respect; people from all part of tibet. In regards to Jamyang Norbu’s article he mentions a little here and there about the involvement of tibetans from the other province…but to a large extent gives all the credit to the chushi gangdruk which he obviously was a part of, and then he goes on to say that none of the tibetan exiles, the govt nor HIs holiness would exist if it werent for them. Now isnt that taking a bit to far?
The symbol of unity for tibetans is His Holiness the Dalai Lama, however much the world has changed around us tibetans he is the very knot that ties us together.
Please explain to me how can anybody say such a thing, it obviously with distort and anger the mind of many, We all know that he was assisted by the khampa gurella’s of his journey way to india no one is denying that. His holiness has also mentioned that in the books about the escape to india ,now isnt that an acceptance? How much more does this Jamyang Norbu want????
In regard to Kham, it is very obvious that the article is largely one sided, i have no hatred for any of my fellow tibetans but…obviously there is a flaw, whether Jamyang is doing it on purpose of just out of ignorance… this kind of one sided article will effect the community.
And by the way Tenpa since you are so well informed about the timings at Aunt Hilda’s basement, you must be an active member…or is it just for the free buffets?
Get a grip on yourself man/woman, lest people call you a big JABJUNG!!
Your rant is illogical and smells of someone with deep rooted inferiority complex.
To fellow bloggers..
I apologize for the ad hominem comment here. But some people who resort to ad homenim attacks can understand only the “ad homenim language”.
For those who don’t understand Tibetan language, JABJUNG is a word used to describe a person’s. It measn something like “a person who does something without realising that the very act will degrade himself/herself”
“a person without substance”, “a fool”.
The accusation that many (if not all) the members of the resistance force in Lhoka were rapists, looters and bandits is straight from Chinese propaganda of the late fifties and sixties. I saw this comment on Phayul by “Bharchang”, who I strongly suspect is another pseudonym of “Phuntso”. “This resistance army far from helping looted nearly every Tibetan they got hold of making the treacherous journey to India. A resistance army so corrupt that it was commonly said among Tibetans that they have two common enemies; the PLA and the Resistance army.”
Were there instances where local people in the Lhoka area might have been robbed by some Khampas. I am sure there was. But we have to bear in mind a number of points:
1. In wartime there is always civilian suffering at the hand of soldiers, even soldiers supposedly on your side. In Europe in WWII there were many cases of American GI looting and killoing civilians etc. But did that make American invasion of Europe wrong? The Indian army in Kashmir is another case in point. I could just go on. In fact Khampa citizens complained about the same thing when Tibetan troops were stationed in Eastern Tibet before 1950.
2. The 4R6R did their best to impose discipline and even put together a code of conduct for all volunteers, the original copy of which was publicly displayed in New York city last year. A number of Khampas and Amdowas were arrested by 4R6R officers and punished. I have the names and background of at least five such cases with me. People who are making accusations against the 4R6R should not make vague statements but specify names of famalies or individuals who allegedy suffered because of the resistance.
3.I have also know of very few Tibetans (even colloaborators) actually killed by 4R6R. In fact even when you take statements made by local Lhoka citizens in Chinese propaganda material it is surprising how unspecific the accusations are and how few of them there really are.
4. In nearly all interviews with Khampas, Lhasawa and other involved in that period, I was told of Chinese agents disguised as Khampas (Khampa dzunma or Khamdzun) and attacking or robbing civilians to alienate the public against the resistance. This might sometimes be overstated by Khampas, but after last years revelations about Chinese police agents posing as Tibetans in the March protests, I am convinced the Chinese did use fake Khampas to rob and kill innocent civilians.
Why are the likes of Sera Jampa, Phuntso, (alias Bharchang) and others so angry about the alleged and relatively minor crimes by Tibetan resistance fighters and not angry about the real, horrifying and on-going genocide by China against Tibet. The simple truth is that the resistance fighters were fighting for Rangzen which to these Middle Path believers means being against the Dalai Lama, while China (no matter if it has killed over a million Tibetans)is the country that they want Tibet to be a part of.
Great response from JN. Sera and Phuntsok’s comment remind me of a old dude who shared same stage with JN and Lobsang Sangey at a meeting organized by chushi gangangdruk, the old dude simply angry how we are not teaching how bad it was in tibet before China took over with the zealous sense of Chinese propagandist. Let bear in mind, China’s over exaggeration of feudal Tibet is only tool to misquote Tibetan history, thus undermine global support that we enjoy. Therefore, we should not waste energy on unnecessary arguments. Instead we should scrutinize our present both social as well as political situation. Sera and phuntsok could be permanent imposters whose only task is to undermine our struggle either through deliberate and fabricated lies if necessay, they might kill someone if situation prevail. These imposters should be banned forever from this site for the rotten information they present.
What many illustrious posters here fail to understand is that the landlords/aristocrats/monastery heads of Tibet for the most part came from all regions of Tibet. Therefore, wearing silk, speaking Lhasa dialect and owning land does not mean they were all “Bhopas”.
Our eastern borders have always been sensitive, and due to this, tribes in these areas had special political status that allowed them much more lea way than would be tolerated in the central areas. There have been from time to time popular belief among some chieftains, due to their military strength, they did not necessarily kowtow to the wishes of the central government, yet having said this they were more Tibetan than Chinese.
Thus at this critical time in our history, the issue of Khampa, Amdo, Bhopa is moot point from the stand point of being persecuted by our common enemy. If we are to survive it will be based on our collective effort and not based on which tribe we belonged to. So lets stop the prattle and get on with the good fight!
Jamyang la, I’m just going through your new book, Shadow Tibet and it is a bible in its own way. You maintained your independent stand for about thirty years. Your articles are still fresh and inspiring. Thanks for your good work.
all those who say or scream “independence” are agents of the PRC or pure shugdens.
they are trying to undermine his holiness goal of genuine autonomy by creating suspicion and mistrust in the chinese toward tibetans. if these crazy independence activitists stopped doing those so called rangzen stuff in the last 2 years, we would all be in tibet by now enjoying the fruit of middleway and genuine autonomy under the kindness of his holiness and our chinese brothers.
we should ban these rangzen nuts.
Helo jamyang lak,
I have just read all the your recent aiticle and these are so fantastic .
I hope you countinue it and not to write any about dorjee Shukden .
Because it will break your values.
Hahahaha enjoying the fruits of middlway…bahhhhh ha ha. I really needed this joke to start the day. That was very funny and creative. So, what is your excuse for the previous 48 years then? I am sure you are going to come up with another great joke. Maybe those people who have died for our country and those who are risking their lives as we speak shouting ‘Rangzen’ in the streets of Lhasa and in all small township and cities all over Tibet are ‘nuts’ and ‘shugden followers’ by your account then? Yeah, please say that in front of me next time and I will teach you a little thing about respect for our martyrs and countrymen. Pangthuk!
past 48 years? 1959 to 1974 tibetan terrorists in mustang base, nepal were killing chinese along the tibet-nepal border and beyond. so how can our chinese brothers trust us then? then in 1979 china said they would give us independence above drichu areas. but cholsum representatives said no. they asked for independence for all the three traditional provinces. then nothing happened. but chinese said if we dropped independence from our mind then they would give us autonomy to the whole of tibet but we never dropped rangzen from our demand and hence the mistrust from our loving chinese brothers toward us. so we are at zero. independence activitists are going against the true wishes and command of his holiness. they are disobeying the tibetan govt. they are disrespectful to samdong rinpoche. in the name of independence they make lot of money and name around the world.
chinese people and govt are very kind and understanding but independence nuts spoil everything by creating dount and mistrust in them toward the whole tibetan race. chugtuk!
Looking at the words UMEYLAM has used, he/she is a traitor/PRC agent, or a Chinese bastard. Which ever he/she is, he/she does don’t deserve an answer. But for the sake of other bloggers, I would like to say a few things.
Umeylam uses words and phrases which are used by China in their rhetorics/propaganda. No decent Tibetan would employ such words even if they resented Rangzen advocators deeply. It is only a Chinese or their running underdogs who would use such words/phrases.
“terrorists in mustang base, nepal were killing chinese”; “our chinese brothers”, “but we never dropped rangzen from our demand and hence the mistrust from our loving chinese brothers”.
Ha, ha, Chinese brothers, my foot!!
Chinese can be our neighbours, but they cannot and never can be our brothers.
Tibetan written history of the past 15 centuries is replete with examples of why Tibet and China cannot be “brothers”.
We can be “friendly neighbours” and at times “hostile neighbours” but not brothers,…. unless…if Tibet can be the elder brother and decide everything for both Tibet as well as China!!
Umeylam says that Rangzen people are all Chinese agents or worshippers of Shugden. He says that the main aim of the Rangzen people is to oppose Dalai Lama and sabotage his MiddlePath policy.
Let us for a minute assume that he is right. In that case, how can we explain the below actions?
1. In the Special Meeting held in Nov. 2008, Jetsun Pema (Younger sister of HHDL and the Director of TCV) publicly said that Ranzen is the only option that we must pursue.
BTW, Jetsun Pema-la was in Group 10 during the Special Meeting, incase anyone wishes to double check on anything.
2. Khedroob Dhondrup, son of Gyalo Dhondrup (elder brother of HHDL) has long been a vocal advocate of Rangzen. During the Special Meeting, he gave an interview to Times Magazine. I was standing next to him. He explicitly explained that Rangzen is the birthright of Tibetans and that is what we should be striving for.
3.The late Taktser Rinpoche (eldest brother of HHDL), has been a Rangzen activist his whole life. His sons are continuing in his path and one of them is going to embark on a long March for Tibet’s independence across the United States shortly.
4. On March 12th, HHDL gave an exclusive interview to Alzazeera.
In it, HHDL said that he endorses any form of struggle for Tibet as long as it is done through “non-violance” approach.
He said that TYC has always advocated Rangzen, and as a result are sometimes critical about the Middlepath. He goes on to say that although China wants to label TYC as a radical, terrorist organization, TYC is not a violant, radical organization. HHDL said that what ever the form of approach that each individual or organizations take, Tibetan struggle is essentially a strggle through the use of non-violant approach. HHDL acknowleges and accepts the different (Rangzen) approach by TYC.
And HE implied that as far as HE (HHDL) is concerned, that is all that matters (i.e. that the approach be non-violant).
Nowhere has he said that Tibetans should not aim for Rangzen.
Does this mean that HHDL’s siblings and their children are aiming to sabotage HHDL’s Middlepath?
If we were to believe Umeylam’s logic, then it would appear as if they (HHDL’s siblings and nephews) are out in force to sabotage HHDL’s Middle Path policy.
These are people in HHDL’s INNERMOST circle. They not only look at HHDL as their supreme leader and support him the best way they can, but as family members with blood tie to HHDL, feel the pain and anguish that HHDL must be going through on his own.
And it is significant that these people have PUBLICLY ADVOCATED RANGZEN at such a crucial period.
As I see it, people with vested interest in the TGIE and petty bureaucrats deliberately acted in the typical “opportunists” way.
I think HHDL was not looking for the outcome that came out of the Special Meeting.
I am absolutely sure that he was not looking for the general mass to “endorse his Middlepath”.
But those with vested interest and bureaucrats made sure that the outcome was what they wanted it to be and then fed HHDL back with their usual crap
“the people support what ever YOU (HHDL) deem right”.
But we all know that when ever an official or a bureaucrat want to carry out something, both for the sake of Tibet as well for their own selfish purpose (unfortunatley the latter is likely to be more common), they invoke the name of HHDL.
That is what they did during the Special Meeting too.
I would like to conclude my note by drawing your attention to the below statistics:
The result of the poll conducted in Tibet through telephone in regard to the future course of action for Tibet.
Of the 17500 respondnets:
8000 said:what ever course the Dalai Lama decides
5000+ said: Rangzen Tsangma (Pure Independence)
The remaining said autonomy.
All the family members of the Dalai Lama advocate Rangzen/independence. If we used that as a proxy and assumed that deep in his heart, HHDL actually thinks that there is no future in advocating Middle Path (may be that is why he called the Special Meeting in the first place),
then we can reasonably conclude that the 8000 votes saying “what ever HHDL wishes” can be interpreted as meaning “Rangzen Tsangma”.
That puts the total for Rangzen Tsangma at 13000 to 3000+ for Middlepth.
Thus, everything, leaving aside the actions of a few traitors and the opportunist bureaucrats within the TGIE ranks and file, would indicate that majority of Tibetans both inside and outside Tibet want Rangzen. No doubt about it.
And Rangzen is what we must strive for.
Gen Jamyang lak.
Thank you for awakening the past through your passion and vision, your talents is what many of us Tibetans need to learn, we need to such analitical and high level of research to attain genuine autonomy, so to find a path that will be mutually beneficial for both Chinese and us Tibetans.
As H. holiness urges us that, we need to keep our precious human life alife, try everything to not fall under brutal and merciless chinese millitary capture. rather we should use all the creativities and unities that we can achieve together in the techo-21-multi-speed-info age. to combat, as warriors of the 21st century………….
We will be free, and we will also free the Chinese from their illusion..
thank you dearly to your love and contribution to the coming future Tibet
just saying rangzen is our birthright and we want independence is not enough. what can you do to get it? scream and cry! that’s it?
dalai lama is our god buddha. he knows everything past present and future. nobody is more capabable than him. because he sees the future he knows autonomy is the best for us. his root student samdong rinpoche-the brave/clever khampa- said already tibet is an internal affair of china. so why few of you rangzen pangos harm the dalai lama’s dreams for six million tibetans?
We have the right to follow whatever views we feel is of more benefit for Tibet. I wouldnt disregard neither the Rangzen nor the middle path…because both have substantially highlighted the Tibet cause.
Whereas i am concerned i support middle way a 100%. This is not merely due to my devotions to his holiness,but to me personally i feel the middle way to be of more benefit and virtious. But once again this is only a personal view…and i dont want to disregard how others feel.
With regards to jamyangs comment to me,Firstly did i even mention that i am affected by the rangzen movement? If you couldnt understand i was merely addressing your bias nature; placing all the credit of our, the govt and his holiness survival on the hands of the resistance army, intentionally or unintentionally dividing the community with you on sided support, and most importantly the way you address His Holiness in such a disrespectful manner. You might win the heart and minds of the people reading your article in the first few paragraphs or so..but then when lines as such appear in regard to his holiness then the little respect that has accmulated for you goes straight down. With all due respect follow your rangzen path, we are free to do or think what we want atleast us in exile but remember just as you have the freedom to do that you cannot impose your views on others!
For people who are confused as in whether they should support the middle way of the rangzen here is an example with regard to buddhism; Buddha said test it, try if and if you feel that it is right and beneficial then practise it,but if you feel otherwise then neglect it, Likewise test which path suit our cause best and follow it.
umeylam is definitely a commie! No tibetan will post comments like his. I have a cousin who came from tibet to visit.I confess that the family works for the chinese government.Yet I know they have more love and respect for HH than I probably do.The cousin of mine was always nervous around stuff that had FREE TIBET because she feared they would appear in the many photos we took.I could understand that. We talked a little about politics.She said it was not bad as long as you didnt mess in politics or mention the Dalai lama.And yes she said although she had a chinese passport she felt she wasnt really chinese. She speaks of discrimination and says for every job on offer at least 6 chinese would be considered before a tibetan was considered.
If Jamyang Norbu knew that there was such a major event taken place in (1956) Tibetan history worth taking note of – WHAT TOOK HIM 53 YEARS TO BRING THIS TO LIGHT? By the way, Jamyang, have you been to our national museum, THE MUSEUM OF TIBET, in Dharamsala? The main floor of the museum is dedicated to the Chushi Gangdruk’s fight against China’s invasion of Tibet? Although it obviously gave too much space (one floor out of two)for a footnote episode of Tibet’s 2136 years of history. But for the sake of encouraging our future generation to make many such sacrifices, if need be, and ofcourse for preserving Tibetan unity for the greater good of the Tibetan cause every one is bearing it out happily. So please do not create a rift in the Tibetan society with your communally coloured write ups. This article (and the likes) is causing more harm than good for Tibet’s freedom. Communalism, in 2009, is a past chapter in our history. This has been amply proved by last year’s revolts in all three provinces of Tibet against the Chinese occupiers. In all the three Provinces the unifyng force is two, and only two, H. H. The Dalai Lama and Tibet’s National Flag. The whole world is supporting the Tibetan cause because of His Holiness. This is crystal clear. No matter what JN says about His ability to handle the Tibetan issue or sees Him as a person. We all are on one side against PR of China. We all are one family. So who has done what for the family there is no need for a claim for rewards or accolades. That too after more than half a century. Such things had never crossed in the minds of the true martyers of Kham, Amdo or Utsang. Only the lesser beingke you and me are making it an issue much after their glorious death. So Please do not bring poison of communalism back in our society. If things go awry from this point on. You, Jamyang Norbu, bears the full blame. Also know this, I was an ardent fan of yours till this disturbing article came out. I have argued with many older generations on your side. One as recently as on the eve of last year’s Referendum. From today onwards my hero Jamyang is dead.
Thankyou Bhoegyal…you’ve said it crystal clear. There definately is something seriously wrong with the Jamyang. He has absolutely no respect for His Holiness, and i doubt if his motivation is even real.
It is unberable to hear the chinese speak badly of his holiness, but when a fellow Tibetan does the same you feel bitterly ashamed and DISGUSTED to know that such people exist within the tibetan community.
And by the way supporting his holiness does not necessarily imply that you follow the middle way. Thoughtful people pay their respect to him because he’s worked everyday of his life for the wellbeing of us tibetans. Every freedom we enjoy in exile…the warm welcome we get from the different people of the world is solely due to the effort of his holiness.
It is clear form all your articles that your fight is not with the chinese but with your own people, your own leader and the exile govt,
I request you to please stop this…you dont have to change your strategy for Rangzen..by all mean follow it… It is definately good for the tibetan cause to have both views and support ….all i am requesting you is to stop degrading His Holiness and stop imposing your views on others.
“chinese people and govt are very kind and understanding but independence nuts spoil everything by creating dount and mistrust in them toward the whole tibetan race. chugtuk!”
Sorry I’m just an Inji supporter and have only been learning Tibetan for a few months so I don’t know what chugtuk means. (I will ask my teacher though!)
As to the rest of it, I would say that if Umeylam isn’t actually a CCP member posing as a Tibetan middle way advocate, she/he has something like Stockholm Syndrome – the intense love kidnapped people often come to feel for their kidnappers.
I know some basically kind Chinese people who can’t quite break free in their thinking from the rubbish their government peddles to them but I haven’t seen too much evidence of kindness in their government. Not to the Chinese themselves, not to the Tibetan, Uigur and Mongol peoples whose lands they occupy, not to the people of Darfur and Zimbabwe who are currently being killed with Chinese supplied weapons, not to first peoples around the world whose lands are being destroyed by Chinese mining and timber companies.
Dhogyal, Bhoeyal and Phuntso,
You didnt read the article. I read full article and I see Jn also mentioned many people from Utsang who were involved in fighting in March 10, and also the Tibetn army makars by name. He gives long stroy of Tsarong, which I have heard for the first time. He also has two p;hotos of Tsarong while he gives everyone else only one photo. So don’t tell lies. Basically you guys are anti-Khampa.
Why is Jn ‘imposing his view on others’ . He is writing his own opinion in his own blog. He is not forcing you or other peoples to read it. you guys are imposing yourselves on ;his website by telling him not to write his ideas on his own website. You want to tkae his right to free speech like China do. You all act very same as Chinese leaders. you want no criticism, you want “unity” which means no ciriticsm. You want only people to belive official policy. I think I understand why Middle path guys Smadong Rimpoche and chamchas and chelas like you all want to be part of Commie china. You are all same. Pathetic ass kissers.
Trash or Tash, listen up. I did not say anything about my political affiliations, Independence or Middle way. Either way both are good for me as long as they are in the best interest of the Tibetan people, especially the majority living hell on earth under Chinese rule in Tibet. Regarding labelling me as anti Khampa and Samdong Rinpoche’s “chamcha” – well on the former, do you not know that Samdong Rinpoche is one of the greatest Khampas of all time? That all the Khampas should be proud of? On the later, I will consider myself blessed if I could be some one capable enough of appeasing (english word for “chamcha” if you do not know)this great man, scholar, incarnate Lama and a true Gandhian, rather than appeasing persona non grata like yourself. By the way, whether you personally accept Samdong Rinpoche or not, more than 80% of Tibetans voted for him to be our Prime Minister for two consecutive times. If you are civilised enough and if you consider yourself a citizen of a democratic society then learn to respect the verdict of the majority. If you say – my way or no way- then go and serve the totalitarian regime that rules our country. You will have your way as you wished. Okay?
Dhogyal or Bhogyal,
I was right when I said you guys don’t read anything. You just come on this website to insult JN and rangzen supporters. Didn’t you read news report Samdong Rinpoche says Tibet Issue is Internal afair of PRC. But you telling me that he is the “greatest Khampa”. Most likely he is Khampa dzunma as Jn explained about Chinese disuguised as Khamps and lotting and raping Tibetans. Dont tell me to go serve totalitarian regime that rules our country. I am fighting for Rangzen. I know you Middle way “appeasers” as you call yourself, really want to go to serve totalitarins regime of China.
Bhogyal, Extremely high percentage election wins should be suspect in a democracy, as in the case of North Korea.
Or the case of Chinese Communist Party elections where it is 100% win!!!
Our government is just one step away from becoming like the CCP.
Tash, SARA and TCL,
You guys are fanatics. You are outrageous and immature. I am dreaded to foresee INDEPENDENT Tibet in the hands of people like you. Tibet will be a mess, another Irag, Somalia or worse. Besides you guys are so ignorant and uneducated. I don’t want to stoop low by sharing this platform with people like you any more. You know what? I suggest you all first go to school and study. Become more matured – intellectually, emotionally and morally. Then come back to debate with me (or others) on this blog. At least that will save the dignity of Jamyang Norbu’s blog and possibly the face of our struggle against the invaders of our country. Besides, our debate will be interesting, meaningful and above all brotherly. Good Luck and good bye.
Before you classify me as fanatic, please read this article which was on Phayul today.
[4 arrested in Kardze, 6 in Nyarong
Phayul[Wednesday, March 18, 2009 16:46]
Dharamsala, March 18 – Chinese Public Security Bureau have detained four Tibetans who undertook a protest demonstration last Saturday in Karze County in Karze Tibet Autonomous Prefecture,……..
The four, who were identified as Namsel Dorjee, 28; Karma Norbu, 17; Rinchen Wangsel, 16; and Sangye Tsering, 17, were residents of Susada Gechung village in Thingkha town in Karze.
The four youths shouted “independence for Tibet” during the protest that was immediately quelled by the security forces, sources said. ……
The father of one of the detainees, Karma Norbu, is serving a prison term for his role in a protest last year and said to be in very poor health. His two sons – Sangpo and Dorjee – are also serving three-year prison term for expressing “their resentment against the wrong policies of the Chinese government”, according to the Tibetan government’s website.]
Tibetans in Tibet, especially in the eastern regions like Amdo and Kham (according to the various news on demonstrations carried by Phayul), are risking everything to raise their voice, and in many a case for Independence. Even under risk of death, people are fighting for Independence.
Why can’t I argue for Independence?
A struggle will lose strength when people pretend to be aiming for something other than what they really want. It is my belief that in the heart of every Tibetan, Rangzen is the one and the ultimate thing that they want.
Why can’t we say that? Let us all first make our goal clear. Once that is in place, then we can go about finding ways to achieve that. The average people’s duty is say what is truely in their hearts. It is for the policy makers to come up with strategies and policies for achieving that.
I want Independence and that is what I want to say aloud.
Pl do not get me wrong (refer my first comment). When I said “fanatics” I was not at all refering to the Rangzen pathers. Only Hu Jin Tao can say that. I am a Rangzen Pather myself. As a member of TYC it is our stand and my stand too. We should never deviate from that. It is best as it is, to describe it the least. The Tibetan govt. has its own policy backed by the majority. So be it untill the next referendum decides.
I see your point.
But is the policy really backed by the majority? When I say the policy, I am referring to Autonomy.
What we need to question ourselves (so that it does not happen again) is:
1. Was it a result of a true referendum? Or was it a result based on manipulating people’s mentality (absolute faith in HHDL)?
2. There is nothing wrong in us having absolute faith in HHDL. The problem arises when we provide false feedback to HHDL.
3. HHDL aiming to hear the true wishes of the people, but the bureaucrats (either out of simple incompetence or with ulterior motives) informing the people that of the different options, HHDL prefers Autonomy.
4. With the current mentality, there is no way that people will chose anything other than what they are made to believe “HHDL believes in”.
HHDL wanting to know the true wishes of the people, but the people telling HIM what they “believe HE wants”.
Do you see the contradiction here?
the art of writing a book.
you too can become a writer.
every tibetan in exile depending on just one person like jamyang norbu to write articles or books on tibet issue is a sad fact. jamyang is a 11th grade graduate from darjeeling or at the most he might be a BA graduate in english literature from st joseph college in darjeeling. citing sources is no big deal if it makes the writing look “well researched” but there is no denying the fact that his written as well as spoken english is good. if he can, why can’t we?
how can you be a writer in 3 steps?
1. read the book “keys for writers”
2. it’s difficult to sit at a table and write a 200 page book in one month but if you visit all the tibet discussion forums on websites you will come across issues/topics you feel passionate about.
just go on writing/arguing whatever comes out of your head and save all your postings on a flash drive. writing is all about passion. this way in 2 years all your saved postings will be used to compile a solid book on rangzen or any other subject that interests you most.
3. hire a good editor!
you don’t have to be the best seller. nor do you really have to do it for commercial purposes. it can be done for pure pleasure. it’s not that difficult to circulate 5000 books in our community. send it to different tibet websites.
i hope jamyang will agree on this “flashes of insight” and will allow this posting here which is indirectly related to our cause.
every tibetan producing five 200page book in a life time! wow!
You need to go to a different library then what the PRC lets you out of your cell to read. Ask your jailers. Perhaps they will indulge you.
Your position that it is those Tibetans who adhere to the dream of Rangzen have been holding the Tibetan movement back because China is being so kind and wonderful and generous, but for these “rangzen crazies” is a stupid ploy that everyone can see through.
China never said “give up Rangzen and we can give you autonomy,” you silly trickster. It said “everything can be discussed but independence.” As far as China is concerned, Tibet is autonomous enough right now. (On paper it has its own local government, etc etc etc).
Your focus on the status and wishes of the Dalai Lama is a trademark of Chinese propagandists with Tibet. His holiness is revered and admire and respected. Cherished, even. But that gives his own dreams no call to impose themselves over the dreams of six million Tibetans. His Holiness has his reasons for his u-me-lam ideal, but remember, his holiness is a long term ordained Buddhist monk and is going to be basing his ideals from it. So of course he will try to compromise for a long while.
But Buddhist ideals notwithstanding, His Holiness has also said it is up to Tibetans to decide which future they are going to struggle for.
After having seen the documentary “A Quiet Revolution” about the Tibetan Women’s Uprising I’m sort of angry that I have read every blog entry by every Tibet blogger on the 50-year commemoration – and no one has even MENTIONED the Women’s Uprising. I’m posting this here because of your amazing perspective on the history and how this post re-contextualizes the events in my mind. It’d be great if you would devote an entry to the Women’s Uprising!
I like JN’s articles, though I am not agree with 40% of your views,specially when you insult His Holiness. And still,that’s your right, I don’t argue, I’ll point it out–if I want. But after gone through all the comments above, I think you are suppose to say something to stop the quarrel which is going on there, and I haven’t seen that yet! I feel despair when hearing these Khampa, Amdo, Utsang things. As a young Tibetan, I sometimes want to kill, CCP fisrt, and those who enjoys setting Tibetan people at loggerheads second. Let’s free our country Tibet together!
Dhonyoe, you have a point but you cannot bring emotion into this historical event, in fact there was this issue of people involved being more from Kham than other regions like Golok as Mikel Dunham has clearly stated these thing in his “Buddha’s Warriors” and also in Roger E. McCarthy’s Tears of the Lotus, who was the head of Tibetan Task for a time under CIA.
In a nut shell, I see this CIA covert mission into as not betrayal but not a genuine help, historically it was in the peak of Cold War and around Korean War…..a time US was threatened by spread of communism, that was out of sheer national security interest! In fact it was CIA’s job to keep China disturbed for a while, our utility finished when Nixon embraced rapprochement to China and we were doomed!
Personally, I want to pay my gratitude to Gompo Tashi and Wangdu…but cannot hold back my anger to Gen Bapa Yeshi.
Sorry, of course our homage goes to not only Gonpo Tashi and Wangdu as there were around four thousand patriotic Tibetan guerrillas when it settled in Mustang, but these two people, An uncle and his nephew led the group at the expense of wealth, family and life.
your articles are bold and quite true too.
what really perplexes many of us tibetans, is the ignorance of our govt. in exile. why do they continue to deny the existence and the heroic sacrifices of the chushi gangdrug?? why do they consider these people as traitors or taiwanese agents, or chinese agents ???
is there a secret deal with the chinese govt. and exile govt.??? i’m really wondering..these so called traitors are still demanding complete independence, where as the so called patriots are for autonomy or middle path.
why/who killed gunthang tsultrim , along with so many khampa and amdo fighters, in india, during the late 1970’s..??’why no answers, no investigations…though many point accusing fingers at the brother of his holiness.
another strange fact is the murder of the brother in law of his holiness, gyalpo la in bangalore, some 25 years ago….mysterious….his wife, jetsun pema la, married tempa la, within a few months, of the murder….
our society has many blunders, and no answers….why……his holiness dudjom rinpoche was imprisoned in north india, on charges of being a chinese spy, and was released only after the personal intervention of the mother of the king of bhutan, who called on mrs gandhi, and assured her of rinpoches’s innocense…who was doing all these things…murder, false charges, smear campaigning…shugden,taiwan etc…
we need more answers, today our govt. has official relations with taiwan,
why dont they get the names of them…are our officials afraid, that they are gonna be opening a large can of worms……….thank you.
TMS_K you ask some very controversial questions of Mr Jamyang, he may not wish to comment on those but he has written one or two comments in Shadow Tibet. It’s not easy to talk about the issues that are VERY SERIOUS and accusing the Tibet Goverment of these crimes and HR abuses.
Billk poster 43, you are fair to say these things in your post. In Australia we still wonder why the Australian Government has exploited the people of East Timor all of this time?
The Timor Sea Oil belongs to the Timorese , how can people sit back and let this happen I cannot understand? Justice must be served and the Australian governnment should look after its neighbours rather than be kowtow to UK & ASA.
Before 1700 Aboriginal people spoke more than 250 separate languages in this country, today only 145 are still spoken and 110 are rated as either severely or critically endangered. Tibetan is interesting to learn but maybe if you would be interested in learning Yolgnu of the NT? Yolgnu only has 3000 speakers and needs interested people to show they care for Indigenous Australian people’s future.
Another problem is the Australian army back in the days of Prime Minister Curtin lied to this country and to the PM, in Kokoda the Aust Army hung more than 100 Papuan Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels (in front of young children), this is a war crime by Australia and must be addressed. Australia must apoligise to the people of PNG for this crime and on Anzac day and Remembrance day this should be acknowledged. Australia has many things not to be so proud of in history.
People from other countries maybe look around in your own backyard for something local you can be of assistance.
I agree with this post of TMS_K | June 4th, 2010 | 10:02 am.
We need an honest and sincere information on ‘why’ 13 settlements assosiation/1st opposition party was created, What was the role of Gyalo Thondup that caused immense dismay among many Tibetans (60s – 70s), who was actually behind the assasination of Gunthang Tsultrim in 1978(created a Tibetan settlement, built Gelug and assisted/supported creation of Nyingma and Kargyu monastery within one same settlement).
Ti’s important to know and learn what went wrong in the past and to embrace those mistakes and ensure these mistakes such as killing/assasinations(barbaric) never happen in future from religious and political point of view. Especially in Tibetan community since we are perceived as non-violent race…
“Don’t kid yourself”, we often use this expression. Arn’t we kidding ourselves if we turn our freedom struggle into khampa, Amdo, u-tsang etc? We are dealing with freedom struggle of a nation. I like the point phuntsok made about unity, it is paramount.
As far as Chushi Gangdruk is concerned, it is termed (བསྟན་སྲུང་དང་བླངས་) which means defender of the Buddha Dharma. So aren’t we not forgetting the main point? They all sacrificed lives for HIs Holiness The Dalai lama and Buddha Dharma. His Holiness is not only our political head but spiritual heart and eye of six million Tibetans. But how can one understand such things if he or she don’t believe in Buddhism.
Jamyang Norbu’s is widely read and appreciated among Tibetan community, but if he dilutes our core value, then i afraid to mention that his motivation or intention will be questioned by many.
Thank you for sharing views
ps: pardon my english mistakes.
So for his SUPPOSEDLY ‘splittist’ words & ideas; Norbu should be subjected to thorough ‘thought reform education’ or spend some time in one of those new harmonica or harmonium schools for patriotic education.