BITING INTO A JUICY MOMO MYSTERY

 

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After I posted my piece on Shabalay last November I thought I was done with writing on food culture for a while. But the manager of Little Tibet Restaurant sent me this urgent email:

Tashi Delek Jamyang la,

We have a momo crawl coming up soon in Jackson Heights where local businesses compete for a trophy that acknowledges which restaurant or vendor has the best momos. I was wondering if you had any articles on the history of momos. If people have questions I want to be ready to answer them. I was looking online and all that BS pissed me off. Someone writes that momo originated from Nepal and then later to Tibet. I’m having a food battle right now.  Thank you.

My apologies to Choenyi-la for missing the momo-crawl deadline. Let me now share with all of you the results of my inquiries into the origins of our tasty but mysterious national addiction. Let us start by taking up the claim about momos originating from Nepal. No more a bona-fide authority than Kamal Tuladhar of the old Lhasa-Newar merchant family of “Gorashar” (Eastern Courtyard) in his biography [1] states unequivocally that momos were introduced to Kathmandu from Tibet by Newar merchants. But, of course, the Nepalese have now made the momo (with curry-spice in the filling) a part of their own national culture as they have done with the khatag scarf now used extensively by Nepali politician in Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Sikkim instead of the traditional mala (flower-garland).

Moving on from Nepal, we run into into the usual speculations of the momo’s possible Chinese origins. I would grant that the classic Chinese baozi dumpling, made with sourdough (chemay) wrap filled with minced pork and cabbage is indisputably Chinese. According to legend, they were invented by the scholar and military strategist Zhuge Liang (3rd century) who features in the great Chinese novel The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義) but is an authentic historical personage.

But the Tibetan momo is very different from the baozi. First of all the momo wrap is thinner and made of unleavened dough, not sourdough. Then the momo filling is always mutton, yak-sha or beef – never pork. Also the momo is smaller and juicier than the baozi. This is not to disparage the baozi which is delectable in its own right. I remember the large fluffy baozi served up by Mr. Wong at the Shanghai (later Glory) Restaurant at the Kalimpong Motor Stand. Four baozis and a chilled bottle of Golden Eagle made an excellent summer lunch.

The closest thing to the Tibetan momo is the Mongol buuz and both most likely share a common origin. It might be noted that the momo resembles the Chinese jiaozi dumpling more than it does the baozi. In fact some historians on China [2] and the Mongol Empire [3] have suggested that jiaozi-like dumplings may have their origins in Western Asia (Persia and Khorasan) and spread from there during Mongol rule. We should remember that the Mongols had the greatest land empire in the history of the world, and, in spite of its ferocity, was a very multicultural, multi-ethnic and by extension, multi-cuisine empire. Many of its cultural and culinary arts were adopted by different nations and races, including the Chinese. For instance the famous hot-pot (Ch. huo-guo, Jap. sukiyaki and shabu-shabu) is of Mongol origin although Tibetans mistakenly call it gya-khok or Chinese pot.

Since Tibet was part of the Mongol Empire it is more than possible that the Tibetan momo is a dish that came out of this cultural mash-up and which we made our own. The spelling མོག་མོག་ (mog-mog) is consistent in all the dictionaries I have come across, even in Sarat Chandra Das Tibetan English Dictionary of 1902, where it is described as  “a small meat patty”, presumably of Tibetan origin since he provides no etymology as he does to all other words of Indian and Chinese origin. Whatever its origins the term momo is now a full-fledged Tibetan word with the honorific “shay-mo” underling the fact. There are no honorifics for dumplings imported from China as the jiaozi or guotie. Jiaozi or more specifically the shui-jiaozi (boiled in water or soup) is made and eaten in Tibet, but is never confused with momos. In fact Tibetans call the shui-jiaozi just “rhu-chotse”, a close enough rendition of the Chinese name. The same applies to the pan-fried dumpling, guotie, that Tibetans call kothay.

An incidental reason for maintaining that the momo is a broadly Tibetan, Mongol and West Asian culinary development, and not necessarily a clear-cut Chinese invention like gunpowder, is that if it were Chinese, Tibetans would most probably have acknowledged it in the first place. In an essay [4] I wrote many years ago I pointed out how Tibetans of the past lacked the kind of aggressive self-conscious nationalism on cultural matters that many societies and ethnic groups in the modern world tend to assert:

“Tibetans in the past readily accepted Chinese terms for the various vegetables and culinary items that came to us from China, as for instance: luopuo (radish, Tib. labuk), cong (onion, Tib. tsong), hong luopuo (carrot, Tib. gung-labuk) and many of the leafy vegetables: baicai, qincai, jiucai, even retaining the (more or less) correct Chinese pronunciation in these cases. The Chinese term cai (Tib. tsay) has now become a Tibetan word (although we have a native term for “greens” ngo), as have Chinese terms for vinegar (cu), chopper (caidao), chopstick (kuaizi) and so on. On this score no Tibetan scholar has insisted on creating equivalent Tibetan terms.”

Tibetans in the past were also careful to differentiate between Chinese cuisine (gya-zay) and native Tibetan cuisine (bhod-zay). The Chinese style cuisine served at official parties in Lhasa was called the gya-zad liu-chopgay or “eighteen-course Chinese banquet.” Also the chefs who prepared such banquets were called gya-zad machen, or “Chinese cuisine chefs”.

Momo terminology goes beyond the merely honorific. The names of the various shapes in which the momo wrap is folded, have their own specific names. The late state astrologer, Drakton Jampa Gyaltsen, let me have the names of the two standard shapes: shay-mo Dawa-Tsekyi, (moon-tip-center) for the momo shaped like a crescent with the center-tip pinched. Then we have the shay-mo Kupsoe-Troktrok (fancy-butt-pleats) where the momo is folded into a ball shape with numerous pleats coming together in a small central dimple, from where some of the juice might trickle out.

Momo shapes: Dawa-Tsekyi, Kupsue-Troktrok, Bhungue-Sukti, Tsi-tsi momo (?)

The next name comes from my mother in-law, Tashi Dolma la of Lhasa, who is a wonderful cook with a treasure-house of Sining, Amdo, Lhasa and country recipies). This momo is called the Bhungue Sukti or “donkey trotter”. It is first folded like the crescent Dawa-Tsekyi but then has the two ends stuck together, looking much like a donkey hoof-print. The last named Tsi-tsi momo or mouse momo is, I suspect, something “cooked up” in exile society. The pleats on the spine of this momo are folded on alternate sides. The shape has been adapted from the Chinese shui-jiaozi.

In Tibet momos were steamed in steamer-stacks called called mok-tro or mok-zang, after the materials (tro: cast iron, zang: copper or brass) with which they were manufactured. This particularly fine steamer-stack on the right made of copper and brass has swastika (yungdrung) designs around it. The swastika is the Bon symbol of eternity, and also denote auspiciousness in Hindu symbology. Tibetan kitchens often have the swastika painted in white on the walls. These days Tibetans use aluminum steamers made in China or Taiwan, though not the bamboo-basket steamers used for steaming dimsums. Quite a few Tibetans in Switzerland use the high-end stainless-steel steamers made by the Kuhn Fabrik at Rikon.

I am not going to go into recipes in this post. I have seen number of websites that do a good job in this line. It might be pointed out though that there are a few regional variations in momo making. As pointed out earlier the Nepalese are going in for curry-spices in the fillings and increasingly for full vegetarian momos. In Amdo chopped garlic chives (chutsay) are put in the meat filling, which gives the momo a very strong taste that I initially found overpowering, but is a stimulating experience once you get used to it. When I was with the resistance at Mustang and we made momos at our camp, I noticed that the Khampas did not mince the meat with a chopper but instead used two sharp knives, the blades of which they crossed and slid against each other on the chopping board. This sliced the meat into small pieces without mincing it into a paste. Meat cut in this way filled the momo evenly when steamed, and did not become a small hard ball inside the wrap.

Tibetan experience of living under Chinese occupation (perhaps even the poverty of exile-life) might have lead to the unappetizing practice (by some) of adding cooking oil to the meat filling, probably since real fat was hard to come-by in periods of famine and food shortages. The bottom line in authentic momo-making (I am told on good authority) is to use only fatty meat with just enough minced onions to prevent the meat pieces sticking together. A little water may be added to the meat-filling, just enough to keep the mixture moist. If you do not stray from these basics a succulent juice-filled culinary indulgence is guaranteed.

Tibetans have not only developed the momo into a wonderful national dish, but even in the adversity of our diaspora life have somehow managed to spread this culinary boon all over a (presumably) grateful Nepal and India. These days the momo has even ventured to the West. It appears to have gained a foothold in New York City, if some of the reviews I have seen in the NY Times, the NY Daily News and local food blogs [5] are anything to go by. But to do justice to the multi-cultural and common-man origins of the momo, it should be pointed out that it is not just the established restaurants (both Tibetan and Nepali) in the city, but also the humble momo-trucks, momo-stands and the backroom frozen-momo “assembly-lines”, that have spread hot juicy momo cheer to the many thousands of Mexicans, Bangladeshis, Jews, Indians, Chinese, Jamaicans, Koreans, Russians, Injis, Drukpas, Sherpas, Nepali and of course Tibetans living cheek-by-jowl in this great city.

(Corrections and comments to the post or additional information on momo or Tibetan food culture are welcome. If the reader has come across momo references in proverbs, songs or literature I would appreciate an email. I have a couple of folk stories with funny momo references which I will let readers have in due course.)

LOSAR TASHI DELEK TO ALL READERS AND FRIENDS

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Tibetan Family Momo Truck – Dallas, Texas

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Potala Fresh Momo Stand – Jackson (aka Himalayan) Heights, NYC
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NOTES:

[1] Kamal Ratna Tulhadhar, Caravan to Lhasa: Newar Merchants of Kathmandu in Traditional Tibet, Lijala & Tisa, Kathmandu, 2012. p.12.

[2] Harold Miles Tanner, China: A History, USA, 2009. p 261.

[3] George Lane, Genghis Khan and Mongol Rule, Hackett Publishing Company, USA 2009. p. 89

[4] Jamyang Norbu “Newspeak and New Tibet: The Myth of China’s Modernization of Tibet and the Tibetan Language, Part V”, Phayul.com, July 09, 2005 :  hhttp://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=10165

[5] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/22/dining/momos-tibetans-forbidden-special-treat.html?_r=0

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/22/dining/tsak-sha-momos-or-tibetan-beef-dumplings.html?_r=0

http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/queens/momo-dumplings-grow-popular-new-tibetan-restaurant-article-1.1918170

http://newyork.seriouseats.com/2012/07/queens-eating-all-the-momos-himalayan-dumplings-jackson-heights.html

Announcing: Momo Crawl 2014

http://www.yelp.com/biz/namaste-tashi-delek-momo-dumpling-palace-jackson-heights

Comments

  1. Mila Samdub | February 2nd, 2015 | 7:57 pm

    Nice article! I’ve been waiting eagerly for this one.

    I noticed one small thing: perhaps our rhuchotsi comes not from shui jiaozi but from zhu jiaozi (煮饺子), which is another word for boiled dumpling in Chinese. On the same note, what of the Tibetan word mogthuk to refer to this dish? Was it used in Tibet or is it an exile neologism?

    Thanks for writing this and Losar Tashi Delek!

  2. Jamyang Norbu | February 2nd, 2015 | 9:19 pm

    You could be right on the meaning of the rhuchotsi. I think both meanings could apply. Mogthuk was not used in old Tibet. As you suspected it is an exile neologism. Glad you enjoyed the treat!

  3. jampa lhundup | February 2nd, 2015 | 9:59 pm

    མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པའི་མིང་དེ་བོད་པས་བཏགས་པ་ཡིན་པར་ངེས་པ་ཡིན། མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པར་དོན་མི་འདྲ་བ་ཁ་ཤས་ཡོད། ༡་ མོག་མོག་ཅེས་འོད་གསལ་ལ་མི་གསལ་ལ་གོ། ༢་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་ལ་ཡང་གོ་བར་འདུག་པས། ད་ལྟ་བོད་ཟས་མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པ་དེ་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་ཡོད་པས་སམ། ནང་གི་ཤ་དེ་ཕྱིར་གསལ་མ་མི་གསལ་ཙམ་ལས་མི་མངོན་པས་མོག་མོག་བཏགས་པ་གང་རུང་ཡིན་ཆོག དེ་གཉིས་ལས་གཙོ་བོ་དེ་བཟོ་ལྟ་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་མམ་སུམ་སུམ་ཡོད་པས་མོག་མོག་ཅེས་བཏགས་པ་ངེས་ཤས་ཆེ།

  4. jampa lhundup | February 2nd, 2015 | 10:00 pm

    momo མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པའི་མིང་དེ་བོད་པས་བཏགས་པ་ཡིན་པར་ངེས་པ་ཡིན། མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པར་དོན་མི་འདྲ་བ་ཁ་ཤས་ཡོད། ༡་ མོག་མོག་ཅེས་འོད་གསལ་ལ་མི་གསལ་ལ་གོ། ༢་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་ལ་ཡང་གོ་བར་འདུག་པས། ད་ལྟ་བོད་ཟས་མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པ་དེ་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་ཡོད་པས་སམ། ནང་གི་ཤ་དེ་ཕྱིར་གསལ་མ་མི་གསལ་ཙམ་ལས་མི་མངོན་པས་མོག་མོག་བཏགས་པ་གང་རུང་ཡིན་ཆོག དེ་གཉིས་ལས་གཙོ་བོ་དེ་བཟོ་ལྟ་ཁ་ཟུམ་ཟུམ་མམ་སུམ་སུམ་ཡོད་པས་མོག་མོག་ཅེས་བཏགས་པ་ངེས་ཤས་ཆེ།

  5. Gyamtsographics | February 3rd, 2015 | 12:20 am

    wow!!! Thank you Jamyang la. Made my day. It remind the Momos of Darjeeling motor stand.

    Tashi Delek and Happy Losar.

    GG

  6. wangdue | February 3rd, 2015 | 12:58 am

    very excellence information about Momo Thanking you Jamyang Norbu la.

  7. Elliot Sperling | February 3rd, 2015 | 9:06 am

    I also enjoyed this article very much, not simply due to its subject, but also because of its knowing nod to Jackson Heights, momo capital of North America.

    On a pedantic note (if I may!) “rh” (for the commonly transcribed “hr”) must denote an original Chinese “sh” (i.e., as in “shui” 水). “Zhu” is commonly transcribed in Tibetan as “kru’u” (cf. “kru’u-zhi” for zhuxi 主席). The common current transcription of Chinese “shuijiaozi” 水饺子 is “Hru’e-ca’o-tsi.”

  8. Jamyang Norbu | February 3rd, 2015 | 10:54 am

    Jampa Lhundup la, thank you for providing your insightful etymological explanation for the word “momo”. I noticed the alternate meaning of mog-mog not only in the Chandra Das dictionary but in the earlier 1834 dictionary by Csoma de Koros and Sangye Phuntsok where mog-mog is said to means dark, gloomy. I like your explanation that mog-mog means enclosed (kha-tsum-tsum)and describes the situation of the meat filling which is enclosed in the dark, and without light. It is possible that many years ago the name mog-mog was borrowed for our national dish by an educated Tibetan with a sense of humor, a not unusual personality type in the past, but extremely rare at present.

  9. karze | February 3rd, 2015 | 11:16 am

    Informative piece of article on etymology and basic info on Tibetan food.

  10. Dechen Tashi | February 3rd, 2015 | 11:56 am

    Thank you , Jamyang. Norbu la for educating us by providing with such educated information on our endeared food ; the momo , that we cherish so much without the slightest idea of its origin prior to this article by you. Often , we talked and wondered about its origination at parties with most of us thinking it probably came from Mongolia (as preferred country of momo’s origin more than the Chinese . Little silly ? Yes ! But , can you help thinking in this fashion ? Perhaps , no.) .You are always so willing and happy to help us in our intellectual needs that even the people who disagree with you sometimes ; can’t help but , respect you with what you have to say . We appreciate that from our hearts . I am very very appreciative of our intellectuals for you folks make Tibet look intellectual beautiful . Thus ; putting Tibet back on the world map . THANK YOU !!!

  11. Khampa Posar | February 3rd, 2015 | 2:47 pm

    ཤ་མོག་མོག་འདི་བོད་ཟས་ཡིན་མིན་ལ་རྩོད་པ་ཡོད་པ་ཞིག་རེད། སྤྱིར་བཏང་ཟས་རིགས་གཡོས་སྦྱོར་གྱི་རིག་པ་ནི་ཡུལ་གྲུ་གཅིག་ནས་གཞན་དུ་དར་སླ་ལ། ཡུལ་སོ་སོའི་དང་ག་དང་མཐུན་རྐྱེན་ལ་ལྟོས་ཏེ་འགྱུར་བ་ཡང་འགྲོ་བདེ་བ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པས། ཐོག་མར་གང་ནས་དར་མིན་བཤད་ཚོད་དཀའ།
    དཀོན་མཆོག་བསྟན་འཛིན་དང་། འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱལ་མཚན། པདྨ་གཡུ་སྒྲོན་བཅས་ཀྱིས་བརྩམས་པའི་བོད་ཀྱི་ལག་ཤེས་ཀུན་བཏུས་ཆེན་མོ་ལས། “མོག་མོག་ལ་ཐ་སྙད་སྣ་ཚོགས་ཡོད་དེ། ལྷ་སའི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་མོག་མོག་དང་། ཨ་མདོའི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཚོད་མ་དང་། ཁམས་མི་ཉག་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཕོ་ལོག་ཟེར”[1]ཞེས་གསུངས།
    སྤྱིར་བཏང་བོད་སྐད་ཀྱི་མོག་མོག་ཅེས་པའི་དོན་ནི་མདངས་ཉམས་པ་དང་གསལ་ལ་མི་གསལ་བ་དབུས་གཙང་གི་ཁ་སྐད་དུ་མ་གེ་མོག་མེ་ཞེས་བརྗོད་སྲོལ་ཡོད་པ་དང་འདྲ་ཞིང་། མངོན་རྟོགས་རྒྱན་ལས་ཀྱང་“མོག་མོག་པོར་བྱེད་ལ་སོགས་དང་”ཞེས་གསུངས་པས། སྒོ་མང་མཁན་ཟུར་ངག་དབང་ཉི་མའི་གསུང་འབུམ་དུ། ཤ་སྦས་པ་དང་མི་མངོན་པའི་ཆ་ནས་“ཤ་མོག་མོག་”ཅེས་བཏགས་པར་གསུངས་པ་ཞིག་ཡོད་དྲན་ཡང་། ད་ལྟ་དཔེ་ཆ་ལྟ་ཆོག་མེད་པས་ཚིག་ཇི་མ་ཇི་བཞིན་ལུང་འདྲེན་མ་ཐུབ། ཡང་རྒྱ་སྐད་དུ་གྲོ་ཕྱེ་རླངས་བཙོས་ཀྱི་རིགས་མང་པོ་ཞིག་ལ་མོག་མོག་(馍馍)ཟེར་བས། བོད་སྐད་ཀྱི་“མོག་མོག་”ཅེས་པ་དེ་ལས་བྱུང་བར་འདོད་མཁན་ཡང་ཡོད།
    ཨ་མདོའི་ཁུལ་དུ་འདི་ལ་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ཡང་། འདིའི་དག་ཆ་ལ་“ཚོན་མ་”[2]དང་“ཚོད་མ་”[3]འབྲི་མཁན་གཉིས་འདུག་པས། མིང་འདི་ཇི་ལྟར་བྱུང་བ་དང་སྒྲ་བཤད་ཡོད་མེད་རྩད་གཅོད་མ་ཐུབ། སྤྱིར་བཏང་“ཚོད་མ་”སྔོ་ཚོད་ལ་གོ་ཞིང་། ཨ་མདོ་ཁུལ་དུ་རི་སྐྱེས་སྒོག་པ་དང་། ཙོང་། དེ་མིན་དེང་སང་ཀེའུ་ཚལ་(དག་ཆ་ངེས་གཏན་མ་ཤེས་)དུ་འབོད་པའི་སྔོ་ནང་རྫས་སུ་བྱས་ཏེ་མོག་མོག་བཟོ་སྲོལ་དར་ཆེ་བས་དེའི་ཆ་ནས་“ཚོད་མ་”ཞེས་བཏགས་པ་ཡིན་སྲིད། ཚོན་ནི་ཤ་ཚིལ་ལ་གོ་བའི་སྐབས་ཡོད་པ་དཔེར་ན། ལུག་ཤེད་ཤིན་ཏུ་བཟང་བར་ལུག་ཚོན་པོ་ཟེར་བ་ལྟར་ཡིན་པས། ཤ་མོག་མོག་ལ་“ཚོན་མ་”ཟེར་བ་ཡང་དེ་ལ་འབྲེལ་བ་ཡོད་སྲིད། ད་དུང་ཨ་མདོའི་ས་ཁུལ་འགའ་ཞིག་ཏུ་མོག་མོག་ལ་“ཤ་ཐུམ་”ཡང་ཟེར་མཁན་ཡོད་པ་འདྲ་ཞིང་། དེ་ནི་ཤ་ལ་གྲོ་ཕྱེའི་ཐུམ་བུ་གཡོགས་པའི་ཆ་ནས་བཏགས་པར་མངོན།
    མོག་མོག་ལ་ཁམས་མི་ཉག་ཁུལ་དུ་“ཕོ་ལོག་”ཟེར་བ་དང་། མིང་དེ་ལྟར་ཐོགས་དོན་མི་ཉག་གི་ངག་རྒྱུན་དུ། སྔ་མོ་གླིང་གེ་སར་རྒྱལ་པོ་མི་ཉག་བརྒྱུད་རྒྱ་ནག་ནས་ཇ་རྫོང་དབབ་པར་ཕེབས་ཤིང་། སྐབས་དེ་དུས་དགྲ་ཟོན་ཧ་ཅང་ཆེན་པོ་གནང་དགོས་པའི་དུས་ཤིག་འཁེལ་བས། མཚན་མོ་མ་གཏོགས་ཉིན་མོ་ཇ་བསྐོལ་བ་དང་ཟས་གཡོ་བ་སོགས་གནང་དཀའ་བ་ཞིག་བྱུང་། དེར་བརྟེན་མི་ཉག་གི་མི་ཚོས་བློ་ཐབས་བཀོལ་ཏེ། ཕོ་ལོག་གསར་བཏོད་བྱས་ཤིང་། ཐོག་མའི་ཆར་ཕོ་ལོག་གི་ནང་སྙིང་དུ་“མར་དང་རྩམ་པའི་ཕྱེ་མར་བརྫིས་”ཏེ་བླུགས་ཤིང་ཕྱི་ཤུན་གྲོ་རྗེན་གྱིས་གཡོགས་ཏེ་མེར་བསྲེགས་པའམ་རླངས་བཙོས་བྱས་ཡོད་པས། ལྟོ་བ་འགྲང་སླ་བ་དང་རུལ་དཀའ་བ། ནང་དུ་སྦྲང་རྩི་སོགས་བསྲེས་ཡོད་པས་བྲོ་བ་ཞིམ་པ། དམག་ས་དང་རི་རྩེ་སོགས་ལ་འཁྱེར་བདེ་བ་བྱུང་། དེ་ལ་གེ་སར་ཧ་ཅང་ཐུགས་མཉེས་པར་གྲགས། ནོར་གླིང་བོད་ཀྱི་རིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐྱོང་ཁང་གི་དྲ་རྒྱར་ཡང་“མི་ཉག་ཕོ་ལོག་ཅེས་པ་ནི་སྐྱུར་ཕྱུར་དང༌། བུ་རམ། སྲན་ཞིབ་ཕྲན་བུ། མར་ཁུ་བཅས་མཉམ་བསྲེས་ཀྱི་ནང་ཚི་བྱས་པའི་མོག་མོག་ལ་ཟེར་”(4)ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག ཕྱིས་སུ་དེ་ནས་འཕེལ་རྒྱས་ཕྱིན་ཏེ་ནང་དུ་ཤ་དང་། ཕྱུར་བ། སྔོ་ཚོད་སོགས་བླུགས་པའི་ཕོ་ལོག་སྣ་ཚོགས་བྱུང་།
    ཕོ་ལོག་གི་གོ་དོན་ཡང་“ཕོ་ཐམས་ཅད་དམག་སོགས་ལ་འགྲོ་སྐབས་ལོག་ལོག་བྱས་ཏེ་འགྲོ་སྐབས་ཟ་མ་མཆོག་ཏུ་གྱུར་པ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པས་(པའི་)དོན་གྱི(གྱིས)་མིང་ལ་ཕོ་ལོག་ཅེས་མིང་བཏགས་”པ་རེད་ཟེར་མཁན་དང་། ཡང་“་ཟ་མ་དེའི་ཕྱིའི་གཟུགས་དབྱིབས་དེ་རིལ་རིལ་ལམ་ཕོ་བ་དེ་ལོག་ལོག་ཅིག་ཡིན་པས་ཕོ་ལོག་”ཅེས་བཏགས་པར་བཤད་པ་བཅས་བཤད་སྲོལ་མི་འདྲ་བ་གཉིས་འདུག[5] སྤྱིར་བཏང་མི་ཉག་གི་སྐད་དུ་ལོག་ལོག་ནི་རིལ་རིལ་གྱི་དོན་དུ་འཇུག་པ་འདྲ་སྟེ། ཁོང་ཚོའི་ཟས་རིགས་“སྐྱུར་ལོག་”སོགས་“ལོག་”ཡོད་ཚད་ཚང་མ། རིལ་རིལ་དུ་སྣང་ཞིང་། ཡུལ་གཞན་འགའ་ཞིག་ཏུའང་དེང་སང་སྒོ་ང་རིལ་རིལ་ལ། སྒོ་ང་ལོག་ལོག་དང་། རྡོ་རིལ་རིལ་ལ་རྡོ་ལོག་ལོག མར་རིལ་རིལ་ལ་མར་ལོག་ལོག་སོགས་ཟེར་སྲོལ་འདུག་པས། སྨོན་ལམ་ཚིག་མཛོད་དུ་ལོག་ལོག་“ཟླུམ་པོའམ་རིལ་མོ་”ལ་གོ་བར་བཤད་པ་དོན་ལ་གནས།
    འདི་དག་གཞན་གྱིས་བལྟས་ན། དོན་ཆུང་དཔྱད་རིན་མེད་པ་ཞིག་ཏུ་མངོན་ངེས་ཀྱང་། དེང་སང་རྒྱ་གར་སོགས་ན། བོད་པ་བཙན་བྱོལ་བར་བརྟེན་ནས་ཟ་ཁང་སོགས་སུ་མོག་མོག་ཧ་ཅང་དར་ཆེ་བར་གྱུར་ཡོད་པས། འདི་ཚོའི་དར་ཁུངས་ནི་བོད་ཡིན་པ་ཤིན་ཏུ་གསལ་ཡང་། ད་ལྟ་ནས་གསལ་པོ་མ་བཟོས་ཚེ། ཕྱིས་སུ་རྒྱ་ནག་དང་བལ་པོ་སོགས་ནས་དར་བའི་བཤད་སྲོལ་འབྱུང་ངེས་པ་ཡིན།
    (འདི་དག་ནི་དེ་རིང་མཁས་དབང་འཇམ་དབྱངས་ནོར་བུས། མོག་མོག་གི་སྐོར་ལ་བྲིས་པའི་རྩོམ་ཡིག་དེ་བཀླགས་རྗེས་ཁ་སྣོན་གྱི་ཚུལ་དུ་འཕྲལ་དུ་བྲིས་པའོ།།)
    ལུང་ཁུངས།
    1) དཀོན་མཆོག་བསྟན་འཛིན།འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱལ་མཚན། པདྨ་གཡུ་སྒྲོན་བཅས་ཀྱིས་མཉམ་བྲིས་མོག་མོག་རིགས་བཟོ་ཐབས། http://ti.kbcmw.com/Html/ZZYS/6467.html (3/2/2015ཉིན་བལྟས།)
    2) ཀ) བོང་སྟག་པ་ཕུན་ཚོགས་ཀྱིས་བྲིས་པའི་ཚོན་མའི་སྐོར། ཀྲུང་གོའི་བོད་ལྗོངས་དྲ་བ། http://zw.tibet.cn/xzms/ysms/200812/t20081219_444118.htm
    ཁ) ཚོན་མའི་སྐོར། རྩོམ་སྒྲིག་པ་བསོད་ནམས་རྡོ་རྗེ། མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ། http://www.amdotibet.com/tibet/content.asp…
    3) ཚོད་མའི་སྐོར། ཁམས་པའི་གསར་འགྱུར་དྲ་བའི་ལེ་ཚན། http://ti.kbcmw.com/Html/ZZYS/1362.html
    4) བོད་ཟས། ནོར་གླིང་བོད་ཀྱི་རིག་གཞུང་གཅེས་སྐྱོང་ཁང་། http://www.norbulingka.org/lcrc/index.php…
    5) ཕོ་ལོག ཁམས་པའི་གསར་འགྱུར་དྲ་བའི་ལེ་ཚན། http://ti.kbcmw.com/Html/ZZYS/8059.html

  12. What Dreams May Come | February 3rd, 2015 | 3:02 pm

    There is a special hell reserved for the person(or persons)who introduced the vege momo into the Tibetan diet. I am scared for my childern losing their tradition growing up on foreign soil, saturated in western values and fads; the rising tide of young, militant sounding, Tibetan feminists with their love for all things sushi. The day might not be too far off when raw fish becomes the perferred stuffing for the Tibetan momo. You can’t even complain because the feminist made it. Oh who am I kidding? Everyone knows, feminists can’t cook. The last one that tried burned the salad.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzAO1_Psh9s

    Cute SFT momo madness skit.

  13. Jamyang Norbu | February 3rd, 2015 | 3:40 pm

    Khampa Phosar la, Thank you for your detailed comment on the origin of the momo name. It is very informative and original. I did not know about the different names of momos in Kham Minyak (pho-log) and Amdo (tson-ma). Thanks for the info. I also liked the comment by Gomang Khensur Ngawang Nima that momo’s were so named because the meat was concealed or hidden. I hope I translated that correctly. I would be grateful if you could send me an English translation of your full comment. JN

  14. Tsunddru | February 3rd, 2015 | 5:29 pm

    ‘rhu-chotse’ – may have originated outside Tibet & all that.

    All I know & can add is that Tibetans have added their own ‘flavour’ to this by cooking (boiling) “tsi-tsi” verion of Momos in bone-marrow soup. Oh & one important step to this is traditionally done the same way one makes (tibetan) po-cha – by churning the extracted ‘bone marrow’ soup thoroughly.
    The final soup is just very very slightly creamy in texture & colour.

    In a colder climate boiling in regular soup or adding a sea-weed leaf to water might do.

  15. Tsunddru | February 3rd, 2015 | 5:38 pm

    Make it – In a WARMER TROPICAL CLIMATE.
    Thanks.

  16. ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་། | February 3rd, 2015 | 8:24 pm

    འཇམ་དབྱངས་ལགས། གོང་དུ་ཁམས་པ་ཕོ་གསར་(KHAMPA POSAR)ཟེར་བ་ཞིག་གིས་བཀོད་པ་དེ་དག ངའི་ངོ་དེབ་(facebook)སྒང་ནས་བཤུས་ཏེ། འབྲི་མཁན་ངོ་མ་སུ་ཡིན་གསལ་བཤད་གང་ཡང་མེད་པར་འདིར་བཀོད་པ་རེད་འདུག རྩོམ་ཡིག་འདི་ངས་བྲིས་ཚར་པ་དང་། ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་གློག་འཕྲིན་(་་་་་་@blomand.net)ཐོག་བཏང་ཡོད།

    ངས་བྲིས་པའི་རྩོམ་ཡིག་འདིའི་སྐོར་ལ་ངོ་དེབ་སྒང་བགྲོ་གླེང་ཧ་ཅང་གི་འཁྲུག་པོ་ཡོང་གི་འདུག ད་ལྟ་ཕན་མཆན་ ༡༣༠ ལྷག་བྱུང་འདུག ཐུགས་ཁོམ་ཡོད་ན་མཆན་དེ་ཚོར་གཟིགས། https://www.facebook.com/chung.tsering/posts/904783049572727

  17. K.Palden | February 3rd, 2015 | 9:49 pm

    a most timely piece on a most delicious cuisine (that once when served with a chilled bottle of Golden Eagle used to make Jamyang la’s favorite lunch). Jamyang la, it would be very nice if commenters could reply to comments by other commenters. Also a tab for THUMBS UP! Thank you and Losar Tashi Delek to your family in advance.

  18. Jamyang Norbu | February 4th, 2015 | 10:21 am

    Dear Chung Tsering la, sorry for assuming that your post was by Khampa Phosar. I read the whole thing as well as I could. You know my Tibetan is not fantastic. I loved the information on the various names of the momo in Amdo and Kham. Also the comment by Gomang Khensur. On the fact of momo being a Chinese term, I found this quote in an article on the Mantou (tingmo) “In the province of Shanxi (山西) mantou is often called momo (饃饃), which is simply the character for “steamed bun”. Could this just be a coincidence as the Japanese calling the peach “momo”? Shensi provence is not contiguous to Tibet as Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan, and does not have the cultural and commercial ties that the latter 3 provinces did in the old days.

    I am thinking of doing a follow up on my momo article and would like to mention your discoveries and ideas on this issue. Contact me on my email. Thukje-che!

  19. BHU PEMA | February 4th, 2015 | 11:20 am

    It’s educative and worth reading as always. Sincere thanks for your authentic and innovative writings. I am very much inspired and fascinated by your gifted talents. As a young boy I am looking up to you as my mentor. Thank you.

  20. Tenzin Tsedup | February 6th, 2015 | 12:50 pm

    Nice and thank you. Only thing I can ask in this wonderful piece is about Lokhor Momo. This Lokhor momo is stuffed with nothing inside. In fact, I have witnessed my father making it. He is from Lhasa. You have to make make dough out of flour. I don’t know if he puts any baking powder or yeast. He then apply some oil(sort kind of vegetable oil)and takes a large dough, about the size of his fist. That size could be an approximate size of lawn tennis ball. He then shapes the dough into somewhat crude conical shape with hollow inside. This hollowness is achieved with his right thumb sticking inside the dough while rest of his right fingers along with palm is gently pressing and rotating against his left palm and fingers. Once several of such shaped dough is made, they are placed in a container where there is a thin layer of oil. This container is then warmed up until the thin layer of oil boils. At the same time, water is boiled in another container. As soon as the thin layer of oil starts boiling, the container is removed from the stove and adds hot water from the other container. For me, it was an amazing sight and sound. The steam of hot water with oils rising up to the ceiling as well as the loud crackling sound of the reaction between hot water and oil was amazing. For this reason, I still vividly remember how he makes Lokhor Momo. As is the procedure to make this kind of Momo different and wonderful, it is different all other Momos that I know of. In this kind, unlike other momos, nothing is stuffed inside. I wonder why is it called a Momo after all? Lokhor probably means ‘a complete cycle’. This is probably coined by virtue of how it is made with rotational cycles around thumb or the shape related to circle. In common Tibetan communication, term cycle and circle are used for same meaning that is something cyclical or round.
    Thank you.

  21. Anna | February 6th, 2015 | 1:47 pm

    Yes! We Indians are indeed very grateful…love momos. Good to read a detailed piece on them, was especially interested by the names for different shapes.

    I was at a Tibetan restaurant today and noticed Shabalay on the menu. Got excited, called waiter and asked for it…was told they didn’t really serve them. Well, will look forward to tracking them down somewhere!

  22. What Dreams May Come | February 6th, 2015 | 3:58 pm

    When prescribing the Lokhor Momo recipe, the warning of, ‘do not try this at home’ must clearly be enunciated. Pouring cold water on hot oil can quite easily combust and set the kitchen, or in my own case, the eye brows, on fire.

    I am glad that someone mentioned Lokhor Momo, very underrated compared to the tingmo. It’s a treat to enjoy a nice steaming plate of crispy golden Lokhor Momos with a bowl of spicy, (extra)hot chicken and potatoe curry. When it comes to hot stuff, the Tibetan taste tend to veer toward the suicidal. Kamikaze cuisine, thats what we like.

    Whats this? Am i right to deduce that the Tibetan National Congress has a new Vice President Migmar Dolma la? I believe its the same young lady that submitted a rebuttal contra Gyari Rinpoche(Rinpoche?)over there at TPR.

    Congrats. The emancipated Tibetan women are so smart, seems there is not much they cant do(academically). We desperately need more of them in Tibetan politics.

  23. Jamyang Norbu | February 7th, 2015 | 12:03 pm

    I agree. Lokhor Momos are amazing. I will provide some more information on this great bread in a follow up post on MOMOS in the near future. JN

  24. Pema Kadag | February 9th, 2015 | 8:38 am

    Take a look at this article from The Daily Beast. The comments are specially interesting http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/02/05/don-t-get-your-hopes-up-tibet-why-obama-s-meeting-with-the-dalai-lama-is-an-empty-gesture.html

  25. Forsixmillion | February 9th, 2015 | 8:56 am

    Jamyang la,
    Losar Tashi Delek. Thanks for all the stuff you do for Tibet.
    I think, one of the most valuable thing, you are teaching here is not just about Momos and Shabalays, but how to do RESEARCH and back up one’s own claims with facts and original sources.

    I have zero knowledge on Momo’s origin but enjoy reading it. I advocate adding lot of veggies for kids like my children who are very reluctant to eat vegetable. It is one way to get green veggies into the kids.

    That said, the main purpose of my writing here is that you have enlisted different shapes of Momos and their corresponding names. While all other names make sense to their corresponding shapes, except the first.

    I think the first should be ” Dawa Tse-chik ” and not ” Dawa Tsekyi” which has not much of meaning in this context.

    Dawa-Tse-chik means moon of the first day of the month, and since the shape looks like one and I think hence the name.

  26. Jamyang Norbu | February 9th, 2015 | 9:39 am

    FORSIXMILLION, Glad you enjoyed the piece.Your suggestion for changing the name “Dawa Tsekyi” to “Dawa Tse-chik” is an inspired one. The waxing crescent of the moon during the first days of the lunar month is as close to this particular momo shape as you can get. Incidentally, the croissant pastry, named for its well-known crescent shape, was created by the imperial chef at Vienna to celebrate the historical defeat of the Turkish fleet at the battle of Lepanto. Hence the eating of the croissant is prohibited by some Muslim fundamentalists.

  27. Amdo boy | February 12th, 2015 | 4:22 am

    ཨ་མདོའི་ཚོད་མ་ཨེ།
    རིག་འབྱུང་དོན་གྲུབ་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    ང་བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་སྟངས་རྙིང་པ་ཞིག་གི་འོག་ནས་ལོ་མང་བསྡད་མྱོང་། ད་དུང་ཡང་ཅི་ཙམ་སྡོད་དགོས་མིན་ཆ་མ་འཚལ། བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་སྟངས་རྙིང་པ་དེ་ལས་ཕྱི་ལ་ཐོན་པར་ངས་འབད་བརྩོན་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་། བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་སྟངས་རྙིང་པ་དེ་ནི་། དབུས་གཙང་གིས་འདི་ཟེར། ཨ་མདོ་ཡིས་གན་ཟེར། ཁམས་པས་ཕ་གི་ཟེར་ཞེས་སྤྱི་བཤད་རྐྱང་རྐྱང་བྱེད་པའི་བསམ་བློའི་གཤིས་ཀ་ཞིག་ཡིན། ང་སྒེར་ལ་བསམ་བློའི་གཤིས་ཀ་འདི་ཇི་ལྟར་འཇགས་མིན་གསལ་བོ་ཞིག་བརྗོད་དཀའ་མོད་། དེ་ལ་རྒྱུ་རྐྱེན་མང་པོ་ཡོད་པའི་ཁྲོད་ཀྱི་གཅིག་ནི་ངའི་རྩོམ་གྲོགས་ཚོ་ཡིན། ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་དུ་ཡོད་པའི་ངའི་རྩོམ་གྲོགས་མང་ཆེ་བས་བོད་ཡིག་མི་འབྲི། བོད་ཡིག་མི་ཀློག ཁོང་ཚོ་ཕལ་ཆེ་བས་དབྱིན་དེབ་ཀློག་གི་ཡོད་། དབྱིན་རྩོམ་འབྲི་གི་ཡོད་། ཁོང་ཚོས་ང་ལ་རྒྱུན་དུ་འདྲི་བའི་དྲི་བ་གཅིག་ནི། འདི་ལ་ཨ་མདོའི་སྐད་དུ་ག་རེ་ལབ་གི་རེད་ཟེར་བ་དེ་ཡིན། ངས་ཁ་ནས་ཀྱང་ཨ་མདོའི་སྐད་དུ་འདི་ཟེར་ཞེས་ཐེངས་མང་ཤོར་མྱོང་། དོན་དངོས་སུ་ངས་ཧམ་བཤད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་། རྒྱུ་མཚན། ཨ་མདོའི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ག་རེ་ཟེར་བ་ཚང་མ་ངས་ཇི་ལྟར་ཤེས། འོན་ཀྱང་། གཤིས་ཀ་རྙིང་པ་འདི་ངས་ཀྱང་སྤོངས་ཐབས་ལ་འབད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་། གཤིས་ཀ་རྙིང་པ་འདི་དང་འགྲོགས་ཡུན་རིང་ན་འདི་ན་ཚ་ཆགས་རྒྱུའི་ཉེན་ཁ་འདུག ན་ཚ་ཨེ། ཞེད་སྣང་མི་འདུག་གམ།

    རྒན་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་ལགས་ཀྱིས་བརྗོད་བྱ་ཤ་མོག་མོག་གི་སྐོར་ཡིན་པའི་བསམ་ཚུལ་རྩོམ་ཡིག་ཐུང་ཐུང་ཞིག་ཁོང་གི་ངོ་དེབ་སྒང་ལ་སྤེལ་འདུག ཁོང་གི་བསམ་ཚུལ་རྩོམ་ཡིག་དེ་ལ་རྒྱབ་རྟེན་རྩོམ་ཁུངས་བཞི་དྲངས་འདུག རྩོམ་ཁུངས་བཞི་པོ་དེ་ངེད་ཀྱིས་བཀླགས་པ་ཡིན། རྩོམ་ཡིག་བཞི་པོ་གཅིག་གིས་ཀྱང་ཁུངས་འདི་ཡིན་ཞེས་བསྟན་མི་འདུག

    རྩོམ་ཡིག་བཞི་པོ་དེ་ལ་རྒྱབ་རྟེན་བྱས་ནས་རྒན་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་ལགས་ཀྱིས། ཨ་མདོའི་ཁུལ་དུ་འདི་ལ་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ཡང་། འདིའི་དག་ཆ་ལ་“ཚོན་མ་”[2]དང་“ཚོད་མ་”[3]འབྲི་མཁན་གཉིས་འདུག་པས། མིང་འདི་ཇི་ལྟར་བྱུང་བ་དང་སྒྲ་བཤད་ཡོད་མེད་རྩད་གཅོད་མ་ཐུབ་༼1༽ཞེས་བརྗོད་འདུག ཨ་མདོའི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འདི་ལ་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ཞེས་བརྗོད་པའི་སྐད་ཆ་དེ་། ངེད་ལ་མཚོན་ན་སྤྱི་བཤད་ཅིག་རེད་། སྤྱི་བཤད་ཅིག་རེད་སྙམ་པའི་བསམ་བློའི་ཐོག་ནས་ངས་ཀྱང་དེའི་སྐོར་ལ་རྩད་གཅོད་ཅིག་བྱས་བ་ཡིན། ངས་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་ཐབས་ལམ་གཅིག་བེད་སྤྱོད་བཏང་བ་ཡིན། དེ་ནི་ཨ་མདོའི་ས་ཁུལ་མི་འདྲ་བའི་མི་ལ་སྐད་ཆ་འདྲི་རྒྱུ་དེ་རེད་།

    ང་སྐྱེས་ས་ནི་ཨ་མདོ་རེབ་གོང་གི་དོར་ཉིན་ཟེར་བའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཞིག་ཡིན། ང་སྐྱེས་སའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཏུ་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་། རྒྱུ་ཆ་ཤ་ཡིན་ན་ཤ་ཚོད་ཟེར། ད་དུང་། ལ་ཕུག་ཚོད་མ་དང་ཞོག་ཁོག་ཚོད་མ། སྣེའུ་ཚོད་། ཀེའུ་ཚོད་། ཀ་རའི་ཚོད་མ་སོགས་མང་། རེབ་གོང་ཆུ་མ་དང་ཤ་སྦྲང་སོགས་སུ་ཡང་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་། རེབ་གོང་མདོ་བ་འབྲོག་དང་ཀླུ་ཚང་སོགས་སུ་ཡང་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་། རེབ་གོང་གི་ས་ཁུལ་ཚང་མར་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་གི་རེད་ཅེས་ངས་ཁ་ཚོན་གཅོད་མི་ཐུབ། རྒྱུ་མཚན། ང་རེབ་གོང་གི་ས་ཁུལ་ཚང་མར་འགྲོ་མ་མྱོང་། ས་ཁུལ་རེ་རེས་ཅི་ཟེར་གྱི་སྐོར་ལ་ངས་ཡིག་ཐོག་དང་ངག་ཐོག་གཉིས་ནས་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཀྱང་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མ་བྱུང་། གཞན། མདོ་སྨད་བོང་སྟག་དང་ཁྲི་ཀ། གཅན་ཚ། མང་ར་རོང་ཕྱོགས། མདོ་ལྷོའི་མཛོད་དགེ མགོ་ལོག་རྨ་ཆེན། ཧོར་གཙང་སོགས་ནས་ཀྱང་ཚོད་མ་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར།

    ད་དུང་། ངའི་སྐྱེས་ཡུལ་དུ་ཚོད་མ་ལ་འཇུག་ཡུལ་གཞན་པ་གཉིས་ཡོད་ཅིང་། དེ་ནི་ཚལ་ཞིང་གི་ནང་དུ་སྐྱེས་ཡོད་པའི་སྔོ་ཚལ་རིགས་དང་གཡོ་སྐོལ་བྱས་ཟིན་པའི་ཚལ་ལ་ཡང་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་དུས་ཀྱང་ཡོད།

    ཨ་མདོ་རེབ་གོང་ནས་རླངས་འཁོར་ལ་བསྡད་ནས་དུས་ཚོད་གཉིས་དང་ཕྱེད་ཀ་ཙམ་ཕྱིན་ན་རྨ་ལྷོ་སོག་རྫོང་ཟེར་བ་ཞིག་ལ་ཐུག དེ་རུ་ང་འཚར་ལོངས་བྱུང་། རྨ་ལྷོ་སོག་རྫོང་དུ་ཚོད་མ་མི་ཟེར། ཁོན་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་། ད་དུང་མཚམས་མཚམས་ལ་ཚིལ་མོག་མོག་ཀྱང་ཟེར། ཕལ་ཆེ་བས་ཁོན་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་། མདོ་སྨད་ཐུན་ཏེ་དང་རྒན་གྱའི་ཕྱོགས་ནས་ཀྱང་ཁོན་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། ཁོན་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདིའི་མཆེད་ཁུངས་ཅི་ཡིན་དག་ཡིག་གསར་བསྒྲིགས་དང་བོད་རྒྱ་ཚིག་མཛོད་ཆེན་མོ་༼2༽སོགས་སུ་ངས་མ་རྙེད་། ངའི་སྐྱེས་ཡུལ་དུ་ཁོན་ཟེར་ན། ཚོད་མ་བཙོ་སའི་སྣོད་དེར་གོ ཞབས་དཀར་ཚོགས་དྲུག་རང་གྲོལ་གྱི་གསུང་འབུམ་ན་ཁོན་གྱི་སྐོར་ཅུང་ཟད་འདུག ཞབས་དཀར་བའི་གསུང་འབུམ་དུ་། “སྔོན་ཆད་བུད་མེད་ཞིག་གིས་ཚོད་མ་ཉིན་རེ་བཞིན་བཅོ་ཙ་ན། ཕོ་སྐྱེས་ལ་རབ། མོ་རང་ལ་འབྲིང་། བུ་ཚ་ལ་ཐ་མ་རེ་བཅོས། ཚོད་མའི་མགོ་ལ་རྩྭ་ཐུར་རེའི་རྟགས་བཞག་ནས་ཁོན་ཐོག་ཏུ་བཞག་ནས་འཚོད་པ། ཉིན་གཅིག་མ་སྒོ་རུ་སོང་ཤུལ་ནས། བུ་ཡིས་ཟང་ཁ་ཕྱེས།་ཕ་བུ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཚོད་མའི་རྟགས་གོ་བརྗེས་ནས་བཞག་པས། ཚོད་མ་བླངས་ནས་ཟོས་པས་ཕོ་སྐྱེས་ཀྱིས་དེ་རིང་གི་ཚོད་མ་འདི་ཅི་བྱུང་། ཞིམ་པོ་མ་རེད་སྨྲས་ཚེ།”༼3༽ཞེས་འབྱུང་།

    མདོ་སྨད་རྔ་བའི་ཕྱོགས་ནས་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ནས་མི་འབོད་། མོའུ་མོའུ་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། མཛོད་དགེ་ཨ་སྐྱིད་འབྲོག་ནས་ཀྱང་མོས་མོས་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། ད་དུང་། ཟི་ཁྲོན་མཛོད་དགེ་ཐང་སྐོར་ནས་ཀྱང་མོ་མོ་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། མགོ་ལོག་གཅིག་སྒྲིལ་ནས་ཀྱང་མོག་མོག་དང་ཤ་མོག་མོག་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། མོའུ་མོའུ་དང་མོས་མོས། མོ་མོ་སོགས་ཡིག་སྐད་ལ་མོག་མོག་མིན་འགྲོ་དྲན། ཡིན་ན་ཡང་། ཁ་ཚོན་མི་གཅོད་།

    མདོ་སྨད་བླ་བྲང་ཕྱོགས་ནས་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ནས་མི་འབོད་ཟེར། ཀོ་རེ་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར། ད་དུང་། འབོ་ར་དང་ཨ་མཆོག་གི་རོང་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཀོ་རེ་མོ་མོ་ཞེས་འབོད་ཟེར།

    གོང་གི་ངེད་ཀྱི་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཐབས་ལམ་གཅིག་པོ་དེའི་སྟེང་ནས་གསལ་སྟོན་ཐུབ་པ་ཞིག་ནི། ཨ་མདོའི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འདི་ལ་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་ལབ་ན་སྐད་ཆ་དེ་སྤྱི་བཤད་ཅིག་ཡིན་པ་སྟོན། རྒྱུ་མཚན། ཨ་མདོའི་ས་ཁུལ་ཁ་ཤས་སུ་ཚོད་མ། ཁ་ཤས་སུ་ཁོན། ཁ་ཤས་སུ་མོག་མོག ཁ་ཤས་སུ་ཀོ་རེ་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་ཀྱི་འདུག་པ་ངེད་ཀྱིས་གོང་དུ་བཤམས་པ་འདི་རེད་། ད་དུང་ཨ་མདོའི་ས་ཁུལ་ཚང་མར་ཞིབ་འཇུག་བྱས་ན། མིང་མི་འདྲ་བའི་རྣམ་གྲངས་ཡར་ལ་འཕར་སྲིད་།

    དེས་ན། དབུས་གཙང་གི་ས་ཁུལ་ཚང་མར་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ནས་འབོད་དམ། ཁམས་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཇི་ལྟར་འབོད་དམ། འདི་དག་ལ་ཡང་སྤྱི་བཤད་ཙམ་མ་ཡིན་པར་བྱེ་བྲག་ཏུ་བབས་ནས་ཞིབ་འཇུག་རེ་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་མེད་དམ་དྲན།

    ད་དུང་། རྒན་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་གིས་བརྗོད་བཞིན་པའི་མ་གེ་མོག་གེ་ཟེར་བ་དང་ལོག་ལོག་ཟེར་བ་གཉིས་ཀྱང་ང་སྐྱེ་སའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཆུང་ཆུང་དེའི་ཁ་སྐད་དུ་ཡང་འདུག དེང་སང་ཡང་བེད་སྤྱོད་གཏོང་བཞིན་འདུག

    ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདིའི་སྐོར་ལ་ཡང་ངས་ཞོར་བཙལ་ཞིག་བྱས་བ་ཡིན། དག་ཡིག་གསར་བསྒྲིགས་སུ། ཚོད་མའི་གོ་དོན་ནི་ཞོར་ཟས་བྱེད་ཆོག་པའི་རྩི་ཤིང་རིགས་ཀྱི་ལོ་མ་དང་རྩ་བ་སོགས་ཀྱི་སྤྱི་མིང་༼4༽ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག འདི་ལ་རྒྱུ་མཚན་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་འདྲ་། ང་སྐྱེ་སའི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཏུ། ལྡུམ་བུ་འཁོར་ལོ་དང་སྣེའུ་ཟེར་བ་གཉིས་བེད་སྤྱོད་བཏང་ནས་ཚོད་མ་བཟོ། ལྡུམ་བུ་འཁོར་ལོ་དང་སྣེའུ་ཟེར་བ་གཉིས་ནི་ཞོར་ཟས་བྱེད་ཆོག་པའི་ལྡུམ་བུའི་རིགས་ཤིག་ཡིན། དེ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ལོ་མ་བཏོག་ནས་ཚོད་མ་བཟོ། སྔོན་ཆད་ངས་ཀྱང་ཚོད་མ་བཟོ་བའི་ཆེད་དུ་རྨོ་རྨོ་ལགས་ལ་ལྡུམ་བུ་འཁོར་ལོ་དང་སྣེའུ་བཏུ་རོགས་བྱས་མྱོང་།

    སྡེ་དགེའི་བཀའ་འགྱུར་དང་བསྟན་འགྱུར་གཉིས་ཀར་ཚོད་མ་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདི་ཐེངས་མང་འབྱུང་བ་མ་ཟད་། སྡེ་དགེ་བཀའ་འགྱུར་གྱི་རྒྱུད་འབུམ་ཁོངས་སུ། “བུ་རམ་གྱི་ཚོད་མ”་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་ཀྱང་འབྱུང་། དེའི་ཁོངས་སུ། “ལྷག་པའི་མར་གྱི་ཁུར་བ་དང་། ཕུར་བུའི་འོ་མ་དང་། ཕ་བ་སངས་ཀྱི་ཁུར་བ་དང་། སྤེན་པའི་སྲན་མ་མ་ཤ་དང་། མུད་ག་བསྲེས་པ་དང་། སྒྲ་གཅན་གྱི་ཏིལ་གྱི་ཐུག་པ་དང་། མཇུག་རིངས་ཀྱི་ཏིལ་གྱི་ཐུག་པ་དང་། བུ་རམ་གྱི་ཚོད་མའོ།།”༼5༽ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག

    ད་དུང་། གཡུ་ཐོག་སྙིང་ཐིག་ན། “ཁོང་དུ་ཁྱིམ་བྱ་མཚལ་ལུའི་ཟེ་བའམ་ཟེ་ཁྲག ཕག་རོག་གི་སྣ། སྦྲུལ་དང་ངུར་བའི་ཤ རྟ་གསེབ་ཀྱི་རྟ་བོན། རྡོ་དྲེག་དམར་པོ། གླ་རྩི་རྣམས་ཞིབ་བཏགས་དྲི་ཆུ་དང་སྦྱར་ལ་གཏོང་ངོ། ལུག་ཤའི་ཚོད་མ་ལ་ཤིང་ཀུན་དང་ཚྭ་སྣ་རིགས་ཚོགས་ཚད་བཏབ་ནས་བཏང་ངོ་།།”༼6༽ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག

    གོང་གི་བུ་རམ་གྱི་ཚོད་མ་དང་ལུག་ཤའི་ཚོད་མ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་གོ་དོན་དེ་། དེང་སང་གི་འུ་ཚོའི་བློ་ངོར་ཡོད་པའི་བུ་རམ་གྱི་ཚོད་མ་དང་ལུག་ཤའི་ཚོད་མ་གཉིས་དང་གོ་དོན་གཅིག་མཚུངས་ཡིན་མིན་ཁ་ཚོན་གཅོད་མི་ཐུབ།

    རྒན་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་ལགས་ཀྱིས་གསུངས་བ་བཞིན། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ན་འོད་མི་གསལ་བའི་དོན་ལ་འཇུག་གི་ཡོད་པ་བདེན། དཔེར་ན། ཟླ་འོད་མོག་མོག་ལྟ་བུ། སྡེ་དགེ་བཀའ་འགྱུར་གྱི་དཀོན་མཆོག་བརྩེགས་པའི་ཁོངས་སུ།
    “མཁའ་ལ་ཉི་མ་ལམ་མེ་ཐལ་ལེ་བ།།
    ནོར་བུ་མེ་འོད་མོག་མོག་བྱེད་འདི་ལྟར།།
    ཉི་མ་སྟོང་བས་ཁྱད་པར་འཕགས་བའི་འོད་།།
    སངས་རྒྱས་ཉི་མ་འགྲོ་བ་འདི་ན་གསལ།།”༼7༽ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག

    དེ་ཡང་། སྡེ་དགེ་བཀའ་འགྱུར་གྱི་མདོ་སྡེའི་ཁོངས་སུ། “དགོན་པར་ཞུགས་པ་གང་འཇིགས་ཤིང་བཞིན་མོག་མོག་པོར་གྱུར་”༼8༽ཞེས་ཀྱང་བཀོད་འདུག འདིའི་སྐབས་སུ་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བ་དེ་ངོ་མདངས་ཤོར་བ་ལ་གོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་འདྲ།

    ད་དུང་། སྡེ་དགེ་བཀའ་འགྱུར་གྱི་མདོ་སྡེའི་ཁོངས་སུ། “བསྟན་པའི་དགྲ་རྣམས་མོག་མོག་གྱུར་པར་མཛད་”༼9༽ཞེས་ཀྱང་འབྱུང་། འདིའི་སྐབས་སུ་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བ་དེ་དཔའ་ཞུམ་པའི་དོན་ལ་གོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་འདྲ། དེས་ན། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བ་འདི་ལ་ཡང་གོ་དོན་མི་འདྲ་བ་ཁ་ཤས་ཤིག་ཡོད་ལས་ཆེ། ཡིན་ན་ཡང་། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ན་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པའི་སྐོར་སྡེ་དགེའི་བཀའ་འགྱུར་དང་བསྟན་འགྱུར་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཁོངས་སུ་ངས་མ་རྙེད་། ཐ་སྙད་འདི་ལ་དོ་སྣང་ཅན་ཚོས་འཚོལ་རོགས།

    མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདི་སྡེ་དགེའི་བཀའ་འགྱུར་དང་བསྟན་འགྱུར་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཁོངས་སུ་མང་པོ་འབྱུང་རུང་། འདིའི་གོ་དོན་ཁ་ཟས་ཤིག་ལ་འཇུག་པ་ངས་མ་རྙེད་། ཤ་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་ཀྱང་བཀའ་འགྱུར་དང་བསྟན་འགྱུར་ཁོངས་སུ་རྙེད་མ་བྱུང་། དེས་ན། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ན་ཁ་ཟས་ཤིག་དང་འབྲེལ་བ་ཡོད་པའི་གོ་དོན་དེ་ཕྱིས་སུ་བྱུང་བ་མིན་འགྲོ་དྲན། ཁ་ཚོན་གཅོད་མི་ཐུབ། གཅིག་བྱས་ན་མོག་མོག་རིགས་དར་སྲོལ་ཆེ་བའི་བླ་མ་སོགས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར་ཡིག་ཆ་ཁག་ན་འདི་སྐོར་ཡོད་སྲིད། ཨ་རིའི་བོད་ཀྱི་ནང་བསྟན་དཔེ་ཚོགས་ཀྱི་དྲ་རྒྱའི་སྟེང་དུ་རྣམ་ཐར་ཡིག་ཆ་ཁྱོན་བསྡོམས་ལྔ་བརྒྱ་ལྷག་འདུག དེའི་ཁོངས་སུ་ཆ་ཚང་དྲ་ངོས་སུ་བཞག་པ་དང་མ་བཞག་པ་གཉིས་ཀ་ཡོད་རུང་། ཡོད་པ་དེ་ཚོའི་ཁོངས་ནས་ཤ་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདི་རྙེད་མ་བྱུང་། (འདི་ཞོར་འཕྲོས་ཙམ་ཡིན།)

    རྒན་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་ལགས་ནས་སྒོ་མང་མཁན་ཟུར་ངག་དབང་ཉི་མའི་གསུང་འབུམ་དུ། ཤ་སྦས་པ་དང་མི་མངོན་པའི་ཆ་ནས་“ཤ་མོག་མོག་”ཅེས་བཏགས་པར་གསུངས་པ་ཞིག་ཡོད་དྲན་ཡང་། ད་ལྟ་དཔེ་ཆ་ལྟ་ཆོག་མེད་པས་ཚིག་ཇི་མ་ཇི་བཞིན་ལུང་འདྲེན་མ་ཐུབ་༼10༽ཞེས་བརྗོད་འདུག སྒོ་མང་མཁན་ཟུར་ངག་དབང་ཉི་མའི་གསུང་དེ་ངོ་མཚར་བསྐྱེད་པ་ཞིག་འདུག འོན་ཀྱང་། ཁོང་གིས་གང་ལ་ཁུངས་གཏུགས་ཡོད་དམ། འདི་ཡང་ཤེས་འདོད་ཆེ།

    བོད་རྒྱ་ཚིག་མཛོད་ཆེན་མོ་ན། མོག་མོག་(馍馍)གི་གོ་དོན་ནི་རླངས་བཙོས་བྱས་པའི་ཁ་ཟས་༼11༽ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བ་འདི་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པའི་གོ་དོན་འདི་བོད་ལ་འཁྱེར་ཡོང་མཁན་རྒྱ་མི་རྣམས་ཡིན་ནམ། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ན་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པའི་གོ་དོན་འདི་བོད་ལ་ག་དུས་སླེབས་པ་ཡིན་ནམ། ཡང་ན་མོག་མོག་ཟེར་ན་ཟ་རྒྱུ་ཞིག་ཡིན་པའི་གོ་དོན་འདི་བོད་ལ་གནའ་སྔ་མོ་ནས་ཡོད་པ་ཡིན་ནམ། དྲི་བ་འདི་དག་ལ་ཞིབ་འཇུག་ཅིག་ཏན་ཏན་བྱེད་རྒྱུ་འདུག

    འཇམ་དབྱངས་ནོར་བུ་ལགས་ཀྱིས་བྲིས་བའི་མོག་མོག་དང་འབྲེལ་བའི་རྩོམ་ཐུང་ཞིག་ཏུ། མོག་མོག་ཟེར་བའི་ཐ་སྙད་འདི་ས་ར་ཐི ཅན་རྡི་ར་རྡ་སི་(Sarat Chandra Das)ལགས་ཀྱིས་སྤྱི་ལོ་༡༩༠༢ལོར་དཔར་བསྐྲུན་བྱས་བའི་བོད་དབྱིན་ཚིག་མཛོད་དེའི་ཁོངས་སུ་༼12༽བཀོད་འདུག་ཟེར། འགྲེལ་བཤད་ལ་ཡང་ཤ་རྡོག་ཆུང་ཆུང་ཞིག་(A small meat patty)ཞེས་བཀོད་འདུག་ཟེར།

    ངེད་ཀྱིས་བསྐྱར་དུ་ཞུ་འདོད་པ་ནི། ཚོད་མ་དང་ཤ་མོག་མོག་སོགས་ཐ་སྙད་བྱེ་བྲག་པ་འདི་ཚོའི་སྐོར་ལ། འུ་ཚོས་ཁམས་དང་ཨ་མདོ། དབུས་གཙང་ཞེས་ས་ཁྱོན་ཆེན་པོས་མ་བཅད་པར་། ཡུལ་ལུང་བྱེ་བྲག་པ་གཙོ་བོར་བཟུང་ནས་ཐ་སྙད་བྱེ་བྲག་པའི་གོ་དོན་དང་བེད་སྤྱོད་། ཁྱབ་རྒྱ་བཅས་འཚོལ་ཐུབ་ན་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་ལག་ཡོང་མང་དུ་འགྲོ་གི་རེད་དྲན། ནུབ་ཕྱོགས་སུ་འདི་ལ་རིགས་ལམ་ཞིག་ཀྱང་འདུག དེ་ལ་ (etymological approach)ཟེར་གི་འདུག རིགས་ལམ་དེས་གཙོ་བོ། ཐ་སྙད་བྱེ་བྲག་པ་གཅིག་གི་མཆེད་ཁུངས་དང་གོ་དོན། འཕེལ་རྒྱས། འགྱུར་བ་བཅས་འཚོལ་གྱི་འདུག

    (ཀློག་མཁན་དག་གིས་གུས་བའི་རྩོམ་འདི་ལ་ཞིབ་འཇུག་གི་རྒྱུ་ཆ་ཁ་སྣོན་བྱེད་རོགས།)

    ………………………………………………………………..

    དཔྱད་གཞིའི་་རྒྱུ་ཆ་ཁག

    1) ཤ་མོག་མོག རྩོམ་པ་པོ་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་། རྩོམ་ཁུངས་ “ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་གི་ངོ་དེབ།”
    2) དག་ཡིག་གསར་བསྒྲིགས། མཚོ་སྔོན་མི་རིགས་དཔར་བསྐྲུན་ཁང་། སྤྱི་ལོ་༡༩༨༧ལོའི་ཟླ་དྲུག་པར་དཔར།
    3) ཞབས་དཀར་ཚོགས་དྲུག་རང་གྲོལ། གསུང་འབུམ། པོད་གྲངས་དགུ་བ། ཤོག་ངོས་༥༠༧
    4) དག་ཡིག་གསར་བསྒྲིགས། མཚོ་སྔོན་མི་རིགས་དཔར་བསྐྲུན་ཁང་། ཤོག་ངོས་༦༤༦
    5) བཀའ་འགྱུར། སྡེ་དགེ། རྒྱུད་འབུམ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ། པོད་གྲངས་༩༡
    6) གཡུ་ཐོག་སྙིང་ཐིག རྩོམ་པ་པོ་ཡོན་ཏན་མགོན་པོ། པོད་གྲངས་དང་པོ། ཤོག་ངོས་༥༦༧
    7) བཀའ་འགྱུར། སྡེ་དགེ དཀོན་བརྩེགས་ང་པ་བཞུགས་སོ། པོད་གྲངས་༤༢
    8) བཀའ་འགྱུར། སྡེ་དགེ མདོ་སྡེ་ཡ་བཞུགས་སོ། པོད་གྲངས་༦༨
    9) བཀའ་འགྱུར། སྡེ་དགེ མདོ་སྡེ་ཟ་བཞུགས་སོ། པོད་གྲངས་༦༦
    10) ཤ་མོག་མོག རྩོམ་པ་པོ་ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་། རྩོམ་ཁུངས་ “ཆུང་ཚེ་རིང་གི་ངོ་དེབ།”
    11) བོད་རྒྱ་ཚིག་མཛོད་ཆེན་མོ། མི་རིགས་དཔེ་བསྐྲུན་ཁང་། ཤོག་ངོས ༢༡༢༢
    12) “Biting into a juicy momo mystery” རྩོམ་པ་པོ་འཇམ་དབྱངས་ནོར་བུ། རྩོམ་ཁུངས “Shadow Tibet”

  28. jigme | February 16th, 2015 | 9:34 am

    Momos mmmmmmmmmm! Never get tired of eating them. My favourite dish in the whole wide world. I m simply in love with this humble dish. By the way we call in khamke rhuchotse also rukmomo meaning momo made in bone marrow soup. I would agree with jamyang la that the momo has central asian origins. I believe there are similar variations in uzbekistan, tajikistan kazakhstan etc.
    Also bawa khampas make a momo similar to paotse called tiru.Momos have truly gone global. BTW i saw a signboard in a remote village in Himachal Pradesh India . Tibtian Thupka and Momo. and yes this was the spelling.

  29. Dolma | March 21st, 2015 | 9:10 am

    What Dreams May Come. Is there a special place in hell for Tibetans who drink chai and eat rice and dal. Last time I checked, this is not Tibetan food. Neither is pakora, or bitter melon eaten with puri, neither is eating beef momo with chili sauce. Neither is eating corn-“tsampa”. This is all a gift from India. Even the incredible rise of obesity in the tibetan community, this is not a western problem, it stems from tibet’s flour-based-animal-based diet smothered in overcooked foods, smothered in refined oils(all thanks to India). Not raw vegetables. Fruit juices have to have milk and sugar added. This is what Tibetans are drinking, all thanks to India. And again, is there a special place in hell for all those Tibetans drinking lassi?? Please research a plant-base diet and see the science behind it. Remember, eating beef momo and being buddhist does not make you a Tibetan. A Tibetan can be atheist and be a vegan and still can be a cultural Tibetan.

  30. What Dreams May Come | March 22nd, 2015 | 3:57 pm

    You made good observations Dolma la. I said those things mainly in jest. I guess I was just frustrated, I simply loathe vegemomos.

    If someone decides not to eat meat because of health or out of compassion and empathy for animals, I can respect that. But for me personally, I simply can’t do without meat in my diet.

    Besides, if animals really don’t want to be eaten, don’t you think they would complain? Please think about that.

  31. Tenpa Dhargyal Gashi | March 23rd, 2015 | 9:00 pm

    What Dreams may come: Don’t knock down Vegi Momos. It is very delicious. You need to add spinach, cheese, and Paneer. All that mash potato momos is not very appetizing. 🙂

  32. Dolma | March 25th, 2015 | 7:35 am

    Tenpa, what you are describing is not vegetarian because there are animal products in the momo. We need vegan momo. Also, how do we expect to be free when we are still drinking chai? We are not Indian. Milk is gross.

  33. pasang | March 25th, 2015 | 10:56 am

    @ 32 Dolma lak,

    Milk is gross? Maybe your family lived in some shangrila city before where tibetans didnt drink milk. but you are insulting the drokpas. one of their main diet. Even the non drokpas consume milk and milk products.

  34. What Dreams May Come | March 25th, 2015 | 1:53 pm

    If Dolma la and Tenpa la had their way, every Tibetan will be forced to eat nothing but tofu and quiche. Can you imagine the fierce, sword wielding Tibetan warriors of old, after a long day of rubble rousing and carousing then lining up at the salad bar? Such an idea is sacrilegious to our meat loving ancestors. Even life-giving mother’s milk now is rejected in hopes of turning Tibetan society into a hermaphroditic, vegan paradise. Enough! Meatlovers of the world: Rise Up!!

  35. What Dreams May Come | March 25th, 2015 | 2:26 pm

    In these kind of a debate, it’s usually, “he says, she says”, but let’s look at the science, shall we? I read here on the Flatulence Index, the data indicates that vegans emit 10 times more gas than carnivores. Imagine adding 7 billion more farty cows to our global warming problem. Presumably vegans don’t care about Mother Earth because of her bountiful mammalian protuberances.

  36. Dolma | March 25th, 2015 | 4:42 pm

    What dreams…And drokpas smell very bad. Please learned the science at nutritionfacts.org.

  37. karze | March 25th, 2015 | 5:31 pm

    At -20C at 14000 ft altitude that too with very little rain is not place where one can find green. No wonder its called cold desert. Even the wild animals have to dig deep into snow to forage the dead grass.

    Wheat and meat based diet in Tibetan plateau is based on practicality.

    So blaming nomad is not good enough. Unless one live as Nomad one cannot pass a judgement so easily.

    Much lower Kham region has more vegetation compared to rest of Tibet.

  38. Dolma | March 25th, 2015 | 6:38 pm

    Yes. In Tibet, no excuse because they don’t have much choice. In savage India, you don’t need to eat meat. In America you don’t need to eat meat or any animal products. Both locations, you can survive on an abundance of plant-based foods. But, we have different arguments going on. One, if Tibetans want their freedom, why are they eating like Indians, chai and dal and all of the other heart attack foods. Indian cuisine is crap. The vegetables are overcooked. What they call vegetarian is garbage. Over oiled and over cooked. Crap. If tibetans had moved to Japan, we would have been better off. Because of India, we are obese and eat like Indians, so really, we are not free. Also, Tibetan food may only be good in Tibet. Butter tea, momos, flour-based cuisine is not healthy on the mainland. Also, dairy foods make you smell very bad!

  39. Dolma | March 25th, 2015 | 6:41 pm

    Tibetans here seem to be very lazy, fake buddhist who think eating beef momos makes you tibetan. Eating dairy does not make you a real tibetan. Also, being buddhist does not make you a tibetan.

  40. Dolma | March 25th, 2015 | 6:52 pm

    Nutritionfacts.org

  41. Pasang | March 26th, 2015 | 9:07 am

    @38, 39

    So you left your Mainland to come to “Savage India” for what? Didn’t your Mainland feed you placentas and foetuses and snakes and shrimps and all those thousands of tiny little creatures to make your skin smoother and fairer and boost your male virility?
    Chai and daal are heart attack foods but of course you now like your burgers and KFC’s and fries. Why? Because they are all made using pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics, growth hormones and all kinds of toxic.
    And if we are obese it’s because of our own impoverished mind set and not because of India. India has a rich long tradition of vegetarianism and most importantly a balanced diet. They even talk about the 3 different foods- the Rajas, Tamas and Satva and why we should eat less of the Rajas and Tamas foods.
    Becoming vegetarian or vegan is just one small step in the right direction. Not necessarily the main criteria of being a Buddhist. There are many good Buddhists who eat meat and there are Buddhists who take great care not to eat meat but they have not worked on purifying their minds. Changing one’s diet is quite easy but purifying one’s r heart is difficult.
    Anyway, I think our body knows what it wants and we should eat that. Better not to pay too much attention to your fickle mind. One day it says fat is bad and carbs is good and next week saying fat is good and so on.

  42. karze | March 26th, 2015 | 10:00 am

    Honestly no one country has an ideal dietary content. Japanese, Chinese, Korean etc who eat lots of meat in their diet. They are least vegetarian of all countries despite being Buddhist.

    Indian diets contains lots of fats and sugar which is not healthy. But it has its plus points such as Tamarind which is supposed to prevent dementia. Indians by and large are vegetarian.

    Truthfully if I were to live in Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam etc in the South China Sea – I don’t know what I am going to eat. The grocery store in these country are creeping with live land and sea animals from octopus to strange looking fishes despite being Buddhist.

    Obesity is caused not by diet alone but other factors such as sedentary life style. You hardly find obese Tibetan elders who toil in fields in India. Most of Tibetans who are obese in India have sedentary life style.

  43. Dolma | March 26th, 2015 | 10:14 am

    Pasang. I don’t eat fast food or soda, these are savage foods. So I guess the mindset of the savage protesters in NY on March 10 (on both sides)are a product of “India’s balanced diet”? Both sides of the argument are full of indian foods. Must be good for the system?

  44. Dolma | March 26th, 2015 | 10:16 am

    I speaking of the march 10th chai-infested riots in ny city…

  45. TSUNDDRU | March 26th, 2015 | 10:43 am

    At this intnl airport came across 2 Chinese enjoying digging into their Styrofoam bowls of Ramen @ a small coffee shop one very early morning!
    We settled for a hot beverage & lokhor momos.

    eir Styrofoam bowls of raamen

  46. TSUNDDRU | March 26th, 2015 | 10:48 am

    There were Indian travellers too having their muffins & the lot. BAGELS remind me of lokhor momos.

  47. Pasang | March 26th, 2015 | 10:53 am

    @ 43

    “So I guess the mindset of the savage protesters in NY on March 10 (on both sides)a product of “Indian’s Balanced diet”?”

    No, it appears to be more like a product of CTA’s Middle way diet.

  48. Dolma | March 26th, 2015 | 10:54 am

    Both sides are wrong and full of crap!

  49. TSUNDDRU | March 26th, 2015 | 11:22 am

    Is RAAMEN a savage food?
    U must excuse my savage questioning.
    Must be the savage vibes….

  50. Dolma | March 26th, 2015 | 5:18 pm

    No Tsunddru. It assholes like you who lost this fight for all of us. Armchair politicians like sft and the cta are all to blame. Both sides aren’t worth horse shit. So keep joking around and enjoy you Chinese occupation. Jerk-off!

  51. What Dreams May Come | March 26th, 2015 | 5:32 pm

    Lets assume that “both sides aren’t worth horse shit.” Now what?

  52. What Dreams May Come | March 26th, 2015 | 5:35 pm

    These almond burfis are amazing!

  53. TENPA | March 26th, 2015 | 6:07 pm

    Dolma
    Are you the one who got an audience with His Holiness and prayed that All Khampas and Amdowas be deported back to their home provinces so that you could live happily ever after in Lhasa with your mainland master? You sound like one such, you ignorant.

  54. Tenpa Dhargyal Gashi | March 26th, 2015 | 7:45 pm

    And…how did this vegetarian momo recommendation turn into this?

    What Dreams May Come: It is alright to be a sword wielding Khampa slashing enemies left and right and then coming home to a plate of delicious VEGI momos, possibly steamed in one of those bamboo Moktuk. Something about the bamboo is supposed to infuse the momos with aroma or texture that helps it make a lasting impression on your palettes. I heard. Personally, the bamboo smell seem to stick to the momos itself and then the smell leapfrogs into my nostrils while on its way into my mouth which, in my opinion, is not so pleasant. At least not to me.

  55. TENPA | March 26th, 2015 | 9:18 pm

    This veggie momo debate shouldnt have turned into this mess. Sorry.
    its not my intention to bring attention to any divisive talks but what to do? it happens. Hope it dont have any lasting impact haha..

    But it really boggles my mind how there are so many people who truly believe that SFT and Rangzen people are doing harm and view them as enemies, more than the China CCP. I dont understand.

  56. TSUNDDRU | March 26th, 2015 | 9:22 pm

    #41. Pasangla;

    Sounds like Our ‘friend’ Dolmala has had more of a TAMASIC diet recently.

  57. What Dreams May Come | March 26th, 2015 | 9:58 pm

    Something that Tenpa la said there about the khampas and amdos in Lhasa. Chidue Karma Chophel la, in the parliament, relaying a rumour he overheard, about some Tibetan from Tibet, when His Holiness inquired, “how’s life in Lhasa?” The Lhasa Tibetan allegedly replied, “life’s pretty good, but it would be even better if the city was without Khampa and Amdo types.” This little vignette was made in the larger context wherein some Tibetans in Tibet like to claim, (mainland Chinese claim this too) that life under CCP is pretty good if you don’t involve yourself in politics.. Karma la cautions, if GPT/CTA is thinking about using such a sentiment for political tool, they best think again, because, to do so would nullify all the hard work that the chidues and the kashag do.

    I remember when Samdhong Renpoche’s 2nd term was over, some people in Dharamsala were claiming they have received petitions signed by 100s of Tibetans in Tibet for the Kalon Tripa to stay on, blatantly disregarding the Exile constitution; marginalizing and disrespecting the position of the Kashag and Chidues.

  58. TSUNDDRU | March 26th, 2015 | 9:59 pm

    #57 Tenpala.
    Dare I say – Dolmala ain’t Tibetan.
    But someone who knows some things.

  59. Tenpa Dhargyal Gashi | March 27th, 2015 | 6:05 pm

    #Tsunddru: You are probably right. Lets talk about Momos and its ramifications for the Himialayan region.

  60. Jamyang Norbu | March 28th, 2015 | 9:38 am

    The comments of 50.DOLMA have been getting progressively more obscene and insulting. I think allowing her (?) to continue posting comments on this blog is not advisable. Hence all her comments will be deleted unless DOLMA refrains from obscenities..

  61. TENPA | March 28th, 2015 | 2:33 pm

    Please read Jamyang Kyi’s “Coerced Vegetarianism and the welfare of Tibetans” posted on High Peaks Pure Earth. then go back and read Jamyang Norbu’s post on this blog “Tibetan Scientist in team.Discerning Final Genetic proof of Tibetan High Altitude Exceptionalism”. See the connection. Over thousands of years our DNA genetic make up as evolved to adapt and thrive on such altitudes and diet i think is one big factor.
    If you wanna become vegeteraian for health or religious reasons better to go about it gradually. Please, I’m not against vegetarianism, only coercion.

  62. karze | March 28th, 2015 | 4:15 pm

    @ Dolma: Tibetans have every right for independent Tibet free of Chinese. Chinese didn’t want to live under Japanese.

    Why should there be exception for Tibetans to live under subjugation while others have fought tooth and nail.

    I am proud that SFT and Rangzen Alliance are keeping the flame of Tibet alive and not kowtowing to Chinese imperialism.

  63. karze | March 30th, 2015 | 11:04 am

    @ Dolma Heart-breaking moment five-year-old girl finds her missing pet dog Flower… being sold ready-cooked at Vietnamese stall

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3017695/Heart-breaking-moment-five-year-old-girl-finds-missing-pet-dog-Flower-sold-ready-cooked-Vietnamese-stall.html?ITO=1490&login&param_hideMasthead=&param_oauth_verifier=CHa3SKclR4jkbkgkkTkVHSZnC8dh7sHE&param_geolocation=row&param_oauth_token=2UXsmlOvU5uICUaPYtkvMdw71RvsiB7k&param__host=www.dailymail.co.uk&param_hideFooter=&base_fe_url=http%3A%2F%2Fdailymail.co.uk%2F&validation_fe_uri=%2Fregistration%2Fp%2Fapi%2Ffield%2Fvalidation%2F&check_user_fe_uri=registration%2Fp%2Fapi%2Fuser%2Fuser_check%2F&isMobile=false#readerCommentsCommand-message-field

  64. Dolma | March 30th, 2015 | 5:03 pm

    @ Karze. Question, which I would love for SFT, CTA, rangzen, tibetan youth movement all to answer. And please think about this question, especially Mr. Shadow Tibet. How do you expect your freedom to be a Tibetan, this means, living freely as a Tibetan, and “keeping the flame of Tibet alive” when the advantage Tibetan is drinking chai, eating pakora, and eating with their hands? This includes drinking coke and soda? Where is the Tibetan identity, the original true identity in acting Indian?

  65. karze | March 30th, 2015 | 5:45 pm

    @Dolma: Your reason are so shallow. Drinking chai or eating pakora will not make less of Tibetan. Butter tea may be good at 14000 ft is not good at sea level.

    One has to adapt to the surrounding and availability of resources. Tibetans do not need to wear Pakstag (sheep skin) at 40 degree C in India nor do Indian just skimp with just cotton at sub zero.

    Tibetan identity not just shallow based on clothing or food habits but more of mental attitude.

    Why do Chinese still moan and groan about Japanese occupation while Tibetans are expected not to utter a even word of resistance after 65 years of occupation and oppression.

  66. Dolma | March 30th, 2015 | 5:53 pm

    It seems you have a food addiction and an identity crisis? Why the complaint made here about vegetable momo and Tibetan ancestors turning over in their graves, but not a word about drinking soda and chai and pretending we are Indian? Watch much Bollywood films?

  67. Dolma | March 30th, 2015 | 5:55 pm

    Also, it sounds like Tibetans have been abused not only by China but by India for giving us such a bad diet and horrible taste in cloths.

  68. Dolma | March 30th, 2015 | 6:22 pm

    And also, we have been abused physically and verbally in India by Indians many, many times. So if you are going to boycott Chinese food, also boycott Indian food!

  69. TENPA | March 30th, 2015 | 7:31 pm

    Karze,
    this golma is a chink. dont engage him. he’s pretending to be Tibetan but he’s not.
    this is how they operate.

  70. TENPA | March 30th, 2015 | 7:42 pm

    btw, Indian food is one of the most loved cuisines all around the world. that because of the intricate spices and herb rubs and pastes. so very flavourful. Even Science agrees.

  71. TSUNDDRU | March 30th, 2015 | 10:55 pm

    @Dolma
    Present your ‘Vegan’ arguments before the ‘Vice President of the CTA.
    & good luck!

  72. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 7:56 am

    Why was the Vice President of the CTA physically attacked at the March 10 NYC march? Someone tried to choke him. I was there. Btw, he is a vegetarian, but not vegan. When Tibetans say they are vegetarian, they are egg-dairy-based, because of their addiction to Indian food. I have spoken to SFT and the CTA about the food-identity crisis pertaining to Tibetans born in India, but they don’t have an answer because they are addicted to sugar and white flour. Especially the tibetan monks and nuns, they are overweight and they eat too much beef. Also, they over eat, and eat the same food everyday. Speaking of monks, like the tibetan community, they would rather spend money on gadgets, like cellphones, new tv, but not on food. They eat cheap crappy food to save money for a phone. Strange.

  73. James k. Hennessy | March 31st, 2015 | 8:16 am

    Many Thanks to you Jamyang la. Once again, I am a day late and a dollar short on this “Momo Crawl”. My little one and I would so have enjoyed attending. We are ravenous where Momo’s are concerned!
    A side note: I’ve finished reading Shadow of Tibet, and was quite blown away. Thank you so much for the eye opening. I would appreciate any recommendations on a reading list. Something a bit focused and not haphazard as is my approach now to becoming better informed.
    Again, my respect and thanks! Tujay shita-chay!

  74. karze | March 31st, 2015 | 9:00 am

    @Dolma: The correlation between Tibet and China is like between Jews and Nazi. As simple and clear as that. Only difference that Jews have powerful supporter by sadly for Tibet none.

  75. Pasang | March 31st, 2015 | 10:24 am

    Tibet’s number one abuser, torturer with invasion of our Land is no doubt China. Not satisfied with the abuse and torture they inflict on Tibetans inside Tibet, demonic Mammon gripped China is now paying billions to Nepal to proxy abuse the Tibetans living there.

  76. TSUNDDRU | March 31st, 2015 | 11:42 am

    #75 Pasangla:

    You said it ALL.
    When gripped by demonic Mammon – there is no Humanity. That is called SAVAGE.

  77. What Dreams May Come | March 31st, 2015 | 12:29 pm

    Who is the “Vice President of CTA” Dolma la? Far as I know, there is no such position. The only official CTA VIP of note in NY on March10th was Kalon Ngodup Tsering, who testified in the parliament that he didn’t attend the main protest, and further, that NY was cold, “it snowed all over so that you didn’t want to go anywhere”, “I drank thukpa”.

    The Education Minister also made an outrageous statement, proudly claiming that he (the highest official of TGIE in NY at that time) didn’t bother informing himself of the situation by reading about it or trolling the internet (yet gave speech against the other position). Even 4 days later, he said that he didn’t bother, as if he was proud of his bias, as if this is standard and effective defense. The chidues made no objections to such blatant prejudice. I thought these hard-nosed pragmatists in Dharsa preferred to view a situation from various perspectives and not be so plebeian and kneejerk. But maybe this kind of sentiment was just meant for the injis.

    Same thing happened year or two ago, Speaker Penpa Tsering talked shit about JN to kids at TCV, where he also stated, “I don’t read anything of JN”.

    If our leaders refuse to be objective, are they being responsible? Granted Kalon Ngodup Tsering might be an idiot or how else did he managed to end up in NY when really, the Sikyong should have been there because its his mess.

    And I agree, both sides were wrong but the NY/NJ should accept the lion’s share of the blame.

  78. Pasang | March 31st, 2015 | 1:58 pm

    @ 72 Golma doesnt know that CTA has no vice president. because golmal is chinese. 71 was a ruse and @72 fell for it.

    People like him are so resentful of Tibetans’ loyalty and respect towards India.

  79. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 4:21 pm

    The Tibetan gentleman speaking to the police officers at the beginning of this video is the one who was choked. He is a vegetarian. Also, he is a major figure in the CTA. Possibly the vp??He was attacked. I was there.

    http://youtu.be/1UAjApA8ylE

    But the attack, somehow, never made tit on YouTube . I wonder why?

  80. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 4:24 pm

    And Psang, I know you and your followers here, especially Mr. Shadow Tibet are dorje shugden practitioners.

  81. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 4:49 pm

    And Pasang, it is extremely logical that you and sft and rangzen alliance are dorjey followers who purposely disrupted the march 10 NYC march to make us look bad so China can point a finger at us. They want tibetan against tibetan and that’s what is going on here. Again, perhaps Shadow has an agenda to split us due to his Lha dhukcha faith?

  82. What Dreams May Come | March 31st, 2015 | 6:19 pm

    Dolma la, if your aggressive vegetarian boyfriend was choked, it is your responsibility to record the incident, and if he is a high CTA official (as you allege without any shred of evidence) then its incumbent on him to report it to the exile MPs and the Tibetan people of the world.

    And Dolma la, just because some hot stud claims, ”I represent 99% of the Tibetan people” that don’t necessarily make it so. You seem a bit desperate.

    Your beau, this brilliant She-jah lawyer says to the SFT girl, ”your freedom ends where my nose begins.” That has got to be some nose to fit 6 million people in it. When he picks it, he could be committing genocide.

  83. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 6:51 pm

    @ 82. English please. I know you are trying to make a valid point, but because of your writing style, I don’t understand you. You are using too much embellished language, with too much inside information, trying to be sarcastic.
    This gentleman is not my boyfriend. As I said before, I don’t like you, I don’t like sft, rangzen,China, India, or the cta. People on this site are not answering my main questions and are just avoiding the subject, such as your worship of dorjey shugden.

  84. Dolma | March 31st, 2015 | 6:53 pm

    Anytime you want to meet at the above mentioned restaurant to debate, I am ready. Bring as many fake Tibetans as you like.

  85. TSUNDDRU | March 31st, 2015 | 10:36 pm

    Dolma – What do U have to say about Pasangla’s #75 – China as Tibet’s greatest abuser. You keep skirting thismain issue. Your so called mission sounds frivolous in comparison that no one takes you seriously – especially when you become verbally abusive for lack of a better argument.
    You sound like a lost sheep from Chinese outreach

  86. TSUNDDRU | March 31st, 2015 | 10:58 pm

    I too have reached out to the Chinese. Alls okay till I mention anything Indian. Then u sense the jealousy & almost possesivness……
    BTW nothing against boycotting Chinese food But try avoid too much Soy sauce & even tamari

  87. What Dreams May Come | April 1st, 2015 | 12:07 am

    It’s hard to believe Dolma la is still single.

  88. Dolma | April 1st, 2015 | 7:10 am

    I know you guys are trying to say something important, but because of your accents, I don’t understand you. As an outcome to this situation, I’m now going to take Buddha’s path and style of when he was asked 10 questions, to which he remained silent. This will be my protest to this site.

  89. karze | April 1st, 2015 | 2:54 pm

    @88: This forum is text based not audio or video. So where is the question of accent come? You should argue coherently or your assertion look so ridiculous.

  90. Tenpa Dhargyal Gashi | April 2nd, 2015 | 8:33 pm

    Holding my breath…

  91. Young Punk | April 2nd, 2015 | 9:23 pm

    #88 good riddance to bad rubbish!

  92. What Dreams May Come | April 5th, 2015 | 5:39 pm

    Speaking of good riddance to bad rubbish.

    Phayul News: “Largest pro independence group suspends president (Ngawang Palden) of NY NJ chapter. http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=35927&article=Largest+pro+independence+group+suspends+president+of+NY+NJ+chapter

    But March 10th NY/NJ organizing committee charges TYC Centrex of, “baseless allegations”.

    Ngawang Palden is not ready to go gentle into that good night, no siree, not even if 90% of the comments on social media and videos are against him, or the fact that many Chidues (MW MPs?) who stood up and spoke out against the NY/NJ tsokpas dirty politics. . Ngawang Palden and ilk keep telling each other they did the right thing and therefore will accept no responsibility for anything and will keep doing what they are doing, to hell with what majority of Tibetans are saying or what the elected parliamentarians are saying.

    This kind of mindset is eerily similar to CCP, a total lack of responsibility, of integrity, everything done for political expediency and control: extremely cynical and contemptuous of everyone else in the society. Claim to believe in higher values such as Buddhism, democracy, equality blabla, but in truth, empty words to fool the mob, we who love to be controlled and lied to..

    Thank the Buddha then, that just in the nick of time, NY/NJ tsokpas are hosting Samdhong Rinpoche, perhaps the most moral man on earth after His Holiness. I am certain that such a morally high saint like the Rinpoche will no doubt lecture Ngawang Palden, that it is morally reprehensible to wear the head of Independence while the heart, blood and sinews all pulse to MW beat. Ngawang Palden, who considers himself a deeply religious man no doubt since march 10, the NYNJ tsokpas will have hosted 3 living buddhas: the Sakya Rinpoche, Karmapa and Samdhong Rinpoche. Surely these holier than thous will set Ngawang Palden straight and shame him into stepping down from his fake president position of TYC.

    If that doesn’t happen, if samdhong Rinpoche is going there to say, “good job guys” then atheist china demanding the selection of reincarnation and a middleway running dog Nagwang Palden hiding behind a rangzen facade would be equating to the same thing: a bone deep lack of morals and no integrity.

    Will our esteemed Buddhist moralists do the right thing in this situation? Thus far, their track record is hideous. It’s hard to believe these people really believe in anything at all except sex, money and control.

    Quote from Tibetnet.

    “They(rich Chinese businessmen) may not be able to buy their way into Nirvana,” Geshe Sonam says, “but in Buddhism, you can get more karmic reward the more money you spend on rituals.”

  93. What Dreams May Come | April 5th, 2015 | 6:13 pm

    “but in Buddhism…….” Meaning what the Buddha taught? But the historical buddha wanted nothing to do with money or rituals. He railed against them quite explicitly in the tipitaka. Please read some of the discourses yourself and find out what he said and what kind of a buddhism we are practicing. Ofcourse the Tibetan buddhism of long life offerings are not the same as Tibetan buddhism of Thupten Jinpa flavor, for inji diet. For that, you need to buy a $1000 dinner plate per person and it will be buddhism stripped of rituals, streamlines to make more palatable for atheist palate. Its all about happiness in this life, an epicurean banquet.

    There is another moral man, a man too weak to be a real monk, now disrobed and deflowered yet still playing the monk with his new age psudo Academic Buddhism for the money.

  94. 4sixmollions | April 5th, 2015 | 11:17 pm

    What Dreams May Come:

    You nailed.you are asset here on this blog. Thanks for all your input. Always enjoyed your post. To me, you are one of the true patriots. I have a sense I know who you are.

  95. Dolma | April 9th, 2015 | 7:16 am

    @91…Punk, it would be nice to get paid for being an irrelevant “writer”, going on tours, not having a real job, and making lots of money, pretending to be poor. It would be nice. But is it nice to be considered a 4th-rate hack writer by accomplished writers who have actually changed the field of writing?

  96. PASANG | April 9th, 2015 | 11:14 am

    @ 95 Dolma,
    Just going through the absurd comments you’ve made – about Indian food, being abused by India,that SFT and Rangzen people are all Shugden worshippers etc., I dont think anyone can take you seriously.

  97. Dolma | April 9th, 2015 | 2:24 pm

    Pasang. One thing I don’t take seriously is your ability to read English a) comprehensively, and b) scholastically.

  98. Kas | May 28th, 2016 | 9:48 am

    Before Mok-tro or Mok-zang, Tibetans steam momos in ceramic momo stacks (རྫའི་མོག་བརྩེགས་) Sorry for the very late comment but if you are still interested I can take a picture of such momo stack and send to you.

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